Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics explains the properties of atoms, molecules, subatomic particles, nuclear reactions and the stability of stars.

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Quantum mechanics has given us the laser, the transistor and the superconductor. 

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According to Leibniz’s indiscernible principle, two numerically distinct  objects can’t share all their properties in common. It is Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle in disguise. It again reminds us that science is nothing but  ‘natural philosophy in a new package’.

………………………………………….

Fundamentally ‘identical’ things in the same state of motion are numerically distinct  objects having all their intrinsic properties in common and even spatio-temporal location cannot distinguish them. According to quantum mechanics, they are in ‘entangled states’.

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“Things are identical if the name of one can be substituted for that of the other without loss of truth.”

-Church

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“By an aggregate we are to understand any collection into a whole of definite and separate

objects of our intuition or of our thought.”

-Cantor

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Leibniz’s principle of indiscernibles  is actually the noncontextuality within quantum mechanics. Physicists still wonder whether it is a logical principle, or merely an empirical principle.
…………………………………………

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Each subsystem of the universe can be unique (enough to initiate nonlocal interactions) in term of their relations to the rest of the universe because space and time are just relational and dynamic properties.

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Cosmological general relativity deals with background independent but  spatially compact space-time.

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The laws of physics are independent of any ideal element or fixed, non-dynamical structures.

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Everything that influences the
evolution of a subsystem of the universe is itself a part of the universe.

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Anything that influences the universe is bound to evolve in response to those influences.

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The doped material is an extrinsic impurity into an intrinsic semiconductor to modulate its electrical, optical and structural properties.

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Helium atoms in a beaker of superfluid helium or electrons in a doped semiconductor are single systems (ensembles) with a large number of subsystems(identical particles moving in the same external potential).

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Inter-ensemble, non-local interactions happen between beakers of superfluid helium atoms. Even if there are no copies of that beaker in the universe, there are greater than 10^20 ensembles of  sub-systems due to the imposition of the inter-ensemble interaction between the identical particles.

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“Macroscopic” quantum systems  constitute an ensemble of microscopic systems all by themselves.

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It might not be  coincidental that quantum interactions between distant subsystems require a preferred simultaneity and  general relativity requires preferred foliations/branchings.

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The absolute notions of similar or not can be replaced by degrees
of similarity for non-local interaction between identical subsystems.

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Though degrees of similarity for non-local interaction are unwelcome  in a fundamental theory, any theory of subsystems is bound to be approximate. This is a sort of  cosmological dilemma.

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Leibniz’s Principle of sufficient reason boils down to “why is the universe like X rather than Y has a reason
sufficient to explain why.” The belief  eliminates arbitrary choices from fundamental laws and initial conditions of physics.

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The number of similar subsystems indicates quantum potential.

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…………………………………………

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Microscopic systems are predictable  only statistically because they belong to ensembles of similar systems interacting non-locally with
each other, just by virtue of their similarities(maintenance of Heisenberg’s uncertainty).

…………………………………………

Macroscopic systems are unique and interact locally.

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Systems which have no causally indistinguishable copies in the universe behave classically, because for such systems there is no confusion possible and no quantum potential. Energy distinguishes copies. Lower energy implies higher variety.

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Ensembles are called ‘quantum states’.

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Only nonlocal interactions between members of  ensembles give rise to quantum phenomena.

…………………………………………

All the  information about a subsystem is contained in its
view of the rest of the universe, through its causal links or other rela-
tions to other subsystems. This is main logic behind quantum mechanics.

…………………………………………
Quantum mechanics is a description of subsystems of the universe.

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A quantum state is an ensemble of similar systems present in the universe at a given time.

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Quantum mechanics is ultimately based on the speculation that our universe is a sort of system  maximizing the distinctiveness of each subsystem.

…………………………………………

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Quantum mechanics is ultimately based on the principle of maximal
variety.

…………………………………………

A system with a particular quantum state takes on an ensemble of similar  subsystems of the universe.

…………………………………………

What we call ‘quantum mechanics’ is actually the story of an imaginary ( officially ‘postulated’) interaction increasing identical subsystems’  distinctiveness, by extremizing the variety.

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………
Einstein’s general relativity best describes how gravity operates.

……………………………………..

I wonder if energy is a condensed form of spacetime and matter is a condensed form of energy!

……………………………………..

I wonder if condensed spacetime, in the form of matter or energy, pushes aside open spacetime causing  curvatures manifested to us as gravitation!

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Matter or energy is identical to  space-time distortion!

……………………………………..

Gravity is distorted space-time!

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I wonder if matter is a consequence of the ripples of space-time exposed to quantum fluctuations identical to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle!

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Everything is embedded in time! I wonder if physical universe is just a sort of  time’s unfurling into expanse!

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Though we are immersed in the infinite  spectrum of reality, only a tiny part of it is evolutionarily significant and accessible to our senses!

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Earth  floats in solar system, solar system in galaxy, Galaxy in Super galaxy, Super Galaxy in Universe, Universe in Multiverse, etc etc. Such systems within systems are defined by some holomorphic (locally uncomparable)  contours!

……………………………………..

In Einstein’s special relativity (relative simultaneity),  the motion of bodies in space over time are  too complicated to visualize since the same event might look  evenly spaced in time in one frame of reference while ‘staggered’ in another!

…………………………………………

If we use Minkowski’s space-time geometry to visualize Einstein’s special relativity (relative simultaneity), we need to play out no movie in our head!
…………………………………………
Minkowski’s space-time geometry helps us visualize the motion by  disentangling relativistic effects!

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Stacking up snapshots of two-dimensional spaces at all successive instants of time amounts to a three-dimensional view of Minkowski’s four-dimensional geometry!

…………………………………………

On two-dimensional paper or screen we feel the three-dimensional view of Minkowski’s four-dimensional geometry!

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A small body at rest intersects each instantaneous space at the same spot. In Minkowski’s four-dimensional space-time geometry, a vertical line represents such a small body at rest!

…………………………………………

If a small body is moving, it will intersect each instantaneous space at a different spot. In Minkowski’s four-dimensional space-time geometry, a  line at an angle to the vertical represents such a small body at motion!

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Minkowski’s four-dimensional  geometry has stunningly turned modern physics into geometry!

…………………………………………

‘The views of space and time which I wish to lay before you have sprung from the soil of experimental physics, and therein lies their strength. They are radical. Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality.’

-Minkowski

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‘The validity without exception of the world postulate [i.e., the relativity postulate], I like to think, is the true nucleus of an electromagnetic image of the world, which, discovered by Lorentz, and further revealed by Einstein, now lies open in the full light of day’.

-Minkowski

…………………………………………

Minkowski’s spacetime has been the greatest discovery in physics of all times!

…………………………………………

Minkowski’s discovery of spacetime  paved the way for Einstein’s general relativity ( that gravity is not a force but curvature of spacetime)!

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

“The generalization of the theory of relativity has been facilitated considerably by Minkowski, a mathematician who was the first one to recognize the formal equivalence of space coordinates and the time coordinate, and utilize this in the construction of the theory.”

-Einstein (1916 paper on general relativity)

…………………………………………

Minkowski’s space-time hypothesis was  a geometric avatar of Einstein’s special relativity before its expansion into general relativity!

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Even in special relativity, natural phenomena were thought to occur in an Euclidean space of three dimensions and to flow through time!

…………………………………………

Minkowski first hypothesized that time itself is a dimension, like length, breadth, and height!

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Minkowski first hypothesized a four-dimensional Euclidean space-time continuum of length, breadth, height and time!

…………………………………………

Einstein’s general relativity was nothing but turning Minkowski’s  Euclidean space-time into a non-Euclidean one in an attempt to explain ‘free fall’!

…………………………………………

Minkowski’s intuition about physical reality (space-time as a whole) helped Einstein formulate his     general relativity(gravity as a spacetime curvature)!
…………………………………………
Minkowski’s ‘space-time diagrams’ helped Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose further develop Einstein’s  general relativity!

…………………………………………

Einstein’s special relativity (that energy and mass are interchangeable and that nothing can travel faster than light!) is just a logical extension of  the notion that the speed of light in space  is always the same wherever it is measured from, and however fast and in whatever direction the observer is moving!

…………………………………………

Einstein’s relativity became popular soon after Minkowski had  expressed its  algebraic equations in terms of geometry!

…………………………………………

Though Einstein discovered special relativity  via equations and thought experiments involving trains, Minkowski’s Euclidean geometry now  helps us easily visualize it !

…………………………………………

The rules of special relativity emerge organically from Minkowski’s Euclidean geometry interlinking space and time into a single whole!

…………………………………………

Einstein relativized space and time, not existence itself!

…………………………………………

Simultaneity is relative! Observers in relative motion have different spaces

and times!

…………………………………………

Simultaneous events (i.e.

the spaces) of observers in relative motion are “cross sections” of an absolute four-dimensional world!

…………………………………………

The relativity of simultaneity (the existence of many spaces) led Einstein and Minkowski to the idea of spacetime!

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

The faster through space, the slower through time! It’s Einstein’s relativity in a single line.

…………………………………………


“Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality.”
-Hermann Minkowski
…………………………………………
In Minkowskian(3+1)D  universe, an event is a  point with a position in Euclidean 3D space and a position in 1D time!
…………………………………………

Minkowskian(3+1)D geometry doesn’t allow more than one event at a particular spatial point!
…………………………………………
One event, one place! It’s Minkowski space!

…………………………………………

Only one event is allowed in a particular Minkowski space!

…………………………………………

Events happen one after another only  at different Minkowski places!
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

A cup and a ring  are topologically equivalent since they both have a single hole and can be deformed from one into another without tearing or gluing!

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The shape that remains unchanged after  an object’s stretching or deformation is a topological shape!

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A manifold is a topological space that is locally Euclidean but globally non-Euclidean!

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A homeomorphism is a map between spaces that preserves all topological properties!

…………………………………………

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Each point of an n-dimensional manifold has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to the Euclidean space of n-dimensions!

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The surface of the Earth is a manifold since it is locally  flat but globally( actually ) spherical!

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In general relativity, space-time is a 4 dimensional manifold since it is locally flat (Euclidean) but globally curved ( non-Euclidean)!

…………………………………………

In general relativity, our universe is four-dimensional! 3 space dimensions and 1 time dimension! On two-dimensional paper, vertically both time and one space dimension are assumed! One space dimension is assumed to extend horizontally! The rest space dimension is excluded! This method simplifies our intuition about dimensions!

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The very existence of the universe excludes ‘zero-gravity’. Like an apple, moon and space-stations fall towards earth. Just right amount of sideways momentum helps them constantly miss the earth! 

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Even a single electron’s  gravity has infinite reach! If the earth was the only massive object in the universe, all smaller objects will  fall on earth! When a constant free-fall speed is cancelled by a slightly more sideway momentum, an object gets a stable orbit around a massive gravity source!

……………………………………..

Things fall slower at first due to the

inverse square law of gravitational attraction.

……………………………………..

Astronauts on the International Space Station are not in a zero-gravity environment. They are surrounded by the earth’s and the sun’s immense gravity. Since both the space station and the astronauts inside it are all

constantly ‘free-fall’ing together  towards the earth only to miss it, they enjoy weightlessness!

……………………………………..

Heavenly orbits are just objects falling but traveling sideways fast enough to miss the source of the gravity!

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The sun curves away faster than the earth can fall towards it. As a result, the earth continually falls and misses and ends up circling the sun!

……………………………………..

Since the equal speed of  all falling bodies (whether heavy or light) baffled Galileo, we can now enjoy  general relativity ( the cerebral celebration of curved space-time)!

…………………………………………

According to the latest CMB data, our universe isn’t flat but  curved!
…………………………………………

In a curved four-dimensional universe, no matter which direction we go to, we end up at the starting point – just like Magellan’s ship around the spherical earth!

…………………………………………


In Newtonian physics, ‘free fall’ or  ‘weightlessness’  arises from the uniform (due to the absence of any other forces) gravitational field accelerating each part of an attracted  body (roughly) equally!

It is the (same) sensation of weightlessness in the absence of any gravity!

…………………………………………

We feel ‘free fall’ when gravity is the only acceleration acting upon us!

…………………………………………

In general relativity, we feel no force in ‘free fall’  since even gravity is not a force but space-time curvature!

…………………………………………

A gravitationally attracted body itself always feels like a fall, even when goes upward or sideward in the eyes of a distant observer!

…………………………………………

In Einstein’s  general relativity, space and time are merged together into a unified framework (space-time). This space-time isn’t a  fixed stage-like background. It is dynamic enough to bend and stretch in response to the presence of matter and energy.
…………………………………………
In Einstein’s  general relativity, the  bending, warping and flexing of space-time force light and matter  to follow curved trajectories — like following the peaks and valleys of the topography while trying to cross a mountain in a straight line.
…………………………………………
Warping of space-time manifests itself as gravitational field. Mandetorily following (by an object ) the  undulations of space-time takes on gravitational pull.

…………………………………………


Like a flexible trampoline, space-time is stretchable.

…………………………………………

You can bend the trampoline down just by standing on it. Whenever anyone goes past you, they feel your “gravity” i.e.  follow a slightly curved path. But far enough away from you, the path is smooth and so without ‘gravity’.

…………………………………………

Like a flexible trampoline, space-time vibrates. When shaken, spacetime sends waves and tremors through the whole thing.
…………………………………………
Such gravitational waves transmit energy through  the fabric of space-time.

…………………………………………

Gravitational ripples originate from just about every kind of motion possible, but only the most energetic movements create instrumentally detectable ripples.

…………………………………………

On earth, gravitational waves move things around  less than the width of an atom.

…………………………………………

Even we are being constantly  squeezed and stretched by gravitational waves created billions of light-years away.

…………………………………………

Gravitational waves become a source of new gravitational waves, similarly ad infinitum. Such a permanent distortion of space-time is called a space-time “memory”.

…………………………………………

“Work in silence and let your success make noise.”

……………………………………..

Whenever an electrical charge accelerates, an electromagnetic disturbance spreads as a spherical wave in space at the speed of light. It is an experimental fact.

 ……………………………………..

Since the speed of a wave on water is the sum of the speed of the wave  and the speed of the flowing water, physicists mistakenly (but reasonably enough) tried to detect the draft of an imaginary ether as the medium of electromagnetic waves like light. Empty-handed they imagined  that an object traveling through the ether contracts and its time slows down. None could explain the physical implications of such mathematical tricks. Unlike Newton, Einstein dared to say that space,time , motion,  rest, mass and energy are just mutually adjustable properties of a physical universe with an absolute speed of light. 

……………………………………..


Einstein’s relativity not only explains the behavior of objects in space and time but also predicts everything from the existence of black holes, to light bending due to gravity, to the behavior of the planet Mercury in its orbit.

……………………………………..

Though there is no “absolute” frame of reference, nothing can beat  the absolutely constant speed of light, rather spacetime/energy adjusts itself to it.This ‘special’ theory of relativity becomes ‘general’ when it it describes gravity as the spacetime curvature due to the presence of mass.

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Since the speed of light is always the same, time slows down( to an external observer only ) for an astronaut (to whom, however,  time flows normally) going very fast relative to the Earth. It is the only way to make light’s speed constant( to that external observer  ) even with the spacecraft’s added velocity!

……………………………………..

One earth-year might equal  one spaceship-minute ( to an external observer only )!

……………………………………..

Fot someone travelling at c,  time freezes to an external observer. The traveler experiences nothing amiss rather sees  the whole 4th dimension at a glance.

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‘Free fall’ as force
‘Free fall’ as four-dimensional curvature

Momentum is made up of two components: mass and velocity. Experimental evidence shows massless  photons have momentum. In Einstein’s special relativity, the kinetic energy of a photon is equivalent to a quantity of ‘spookily acquired’ mass associated with  the momentum.

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Since kinetic energy is equivalent to a quantity of ‘spookily acquired’ mass, even if a mass is observed macroscopically to be at rest, it contains  energy that can be extracted by decreasing the rest-mass amount as per the mass-energy equivalence equation.

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Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence has not yet been observed for chemical reactions because the amount of mass liberated is very little.

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Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence has  been observed in nuclear reactions.

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…………………………………………

The axion is a sort of photon, but with just a tint of mass.

…………………………………………

Since WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) experiments have come  empty-handed, most (6-to-1) of the universe’s mass might paradoxically come in the form of “axion” particles billions of times lighter than the electron.

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The axion can explain why the two fundamental forces that shape atomic nuclei follow different rulebooks.

…………………………………………

The strong nuclear force,  that arranges quarks inside the neutron, obeys charge-parity (CP) symmetry.

Since weak nuclear force violates charge-parity (CP) symmetry,

two-quark particles called neutral kaons decay in ways CP symmetry forbids.

…………………………………………

A typical angle-value θ ( theta ) in  strong force equations seems to be zero, which makes the neutron’s charges stay in line. But for the many other values, the quarks stray.

…………………………………………

If we treat θ as a field (instead of constant)  a particle/ excitation/axion  emerges.

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Photons obey both ‘quantum’ field theory and ‘classical’ Maxwell’s equations. If axions do the same,  they could add up to the missing dark matter packing the universe more  tightly.

…………………………………………

Since axions often decay into two photons, they might be detectable in  a strong magnetic field.

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Just like photons, axions are very wavelike, falling on the wavy end of the wave-particle duality-spectrum.

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Axion’s wee mass makes them extremely low-energy waves.

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Axion’s low-energy wavelengths fall  somewhere between a building and a football field in length.

…………………………………………

Scientists can already produce  a magnetic field that’s about 150,000 times stronger than Earth’s to detect axions by measuring excess power from axion-spawned photons.

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An axion does double duty as both dark matter and a neutron fixer.

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

Humility is the opposite of humiliation.

…………………………………………

Humility empowers us while humiliation leaves us powerless.

…………………………………………

There is no polarity between culture and nature. Culture is actually nature tended and cultivated by one of nature’s products called man.

…………………………………………

Language isn’t an artificial  layer over reality but the natural mechanism utlized by evolution to confer reality upon our very existence.

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An unspoken experience is actually non-existent.

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We tell ourselves ‘memetic’ stories  to experience life itself.

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We shouldn’t base our self-worth on our professional achievements  often determined by contingent  factors (genetic or circumstantial).

…………………………………………

Only man has deep sense of continuity and otherness. Man is not an individual but a  collective memory. It was born some 70,000 years ago with the birth of cognition and language. Our species were then leaving Africa and separating themselves from other animals.

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Man is a rope (a  collective memory) woven from many tiny strands. Our duty is to safeguard the rope from cosmic indifference and vulnerability.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Only man has  collective memory to  change the future.

…………………………………………

Only man has  collective memory to  determine his own destiny.

…………………………………………

Only man has deep sense of continuity. We shouldn’t gain immediate pleasures at the cost of this continuity!

…………………………………………

Only existential threats expose us for what we truly are! We are merely  existing entities! We are fundamentally vulnerable!

…………………………………………

According to Iris Murdoch, humility is the selfless respect for reality.

…………………………………………

Humility is our fundamental adjustment to reality! Belief in something uncontrollable sublime, be it  God or HUP, helps us ‘real’istically adjust to reality by placing us on firm (paradoxically synonymous with uncertain!)  ground.

…………………………………………

Existential threats inculcate humility. Such humility is an insertion into the world, as a way of life. Such humility helps us regain the vision of a sublime reality separate from ourselves.

…………………………………………

Humility is an acknowledgment of our cosmic insignificance.

…………………………………………

Our instinctive plus memetic sense of  self-importance (an evolutionarily evolved algorithmic plugin) usually keeps us hidden from ourselves. Humility brings us back to our naked condition.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Universe  =  10^80 atom

…………………………………………

Universe  =  change ( physical  ➕  chemical  ➕  nuclear )

…………………………………………

Life = change (  physical ➕ chemical )

…………………………………………

Nothingness =  Matter    ➕   Gravity

………………………………………..

Matter = positive potential  

Gravity  =  negative potential

…………………………………………

Massive = stars, planets, galaxies, universe (Gravity or relativity)

…………………………………………

Small = subatomic electrons, protons, neutrons, photons ( quantum mechanics)

…………………………………………

Compressed (massive ➕ small ) = black hole (quantum gravity)

…………………………………………


Ancestors / Newton =  space +  time

…………………………………………

Einstein  = spacetime

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Ancestors / Newton =  things move

…………………………………………

Einstein  = things exist  + static spacetime

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Ancestors / Newton =  things  stay  + in space

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Einstein  = things extend  +  along spacetime

…………………………………………

Universe = 10^24 star

…………………………………………

Logic = Reality

……………………………………..

Reality > Existence > Universe > Energy > Particles  > Chemicals > Reactions > Life > Consciousness

……………………………………..

Reality – Existence = Potential

……………………………………..

Life < Existence < Reality

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Wavefunction is a physical quantity in quantum mechanics!

……………………………………..

Since the value for the wave function is usually a complex number, only the square value of the wavefunction  gives the probability distribution of a quantum system (the probability of an electron to be found in a particular region)!

……………………………………..

The wave function  gives the time evolution of a quantum system! It tells us  how the system would behave when it is perturbed!

……………………………………..

In sound waves, air is doing the waving.

In light waves, electro-magnetic field is doing the waving. For matter waves, this is the wave function!

……………………………………..

The wave function of a particle at a given point of space and time is coupled to the probability of the particle’s being there at the time!

……………………………………..

If there are many particles, in general there is only one wave function, not a separate wave function for each particle!

……………………………………..

A wave function is a function that satisfies a wave equation and describes the properties of a wave!

……………………………………..

Wave function ψ(x,y,z,t) of a particle is the amplitude (maximum displacement of a periodic wave) of matter wave associated with particle at position and time represented by (x,y,z) and t!

……………………………………..

A wave function is a continuous function!

A wave function is the amplitude of the matter wave at any point in space and time!

A wave function  allows for the calculation of allowed energy values and momentum through the Schrodinger equation!

A wave function allows for the calculation of a probability distribution in 3-dimensional space!

……………………………………..

The wavefunction is synonomous with the Schrodinger equation describing the evolution over time of a quantum system!

…………………………………….

Just like a subatomic particle, the entire universe is coupled to some  schrodinger equation/wavefunction!

……………………………………..

Conciousness causes the reduction of the wavefunction much how the observer ruins every quantum physics experiment!

……………………………………..

Chemical reactions happen because wavefunctions of different atoms interfere with each other to form molecular orbitals!

……………………………………..

Wavefunction is quantum mechanical conterpart to trajectory in classical mechanics!

……………………………………..



We can’t expect a better interpretation of quantum mechanics at the cost of classical realism.

…………………………………………

As individual quantum systems, particles appear to scatter off empty branches of the wave-function, and conversely travel through particles as if they were waves.

…………………………………………

Geo-centrism was dismissed by the Copernican revolution; perpetual  motion dismissed by thermodynamics, and absolute space and time dismissed by relativity theory.

…………………………………………

Local realism (locality, determinism and causation)  appears to be violated by quantum entanglement.

…………………………………………

Quantum “particle”, or configurations do not obey the principle of inertia and the conservation of momentum.

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is like the worst weather forecasts giving only the average daily amount of rain expected over the next month. It says nothing about specific atoms or electrons doing things in real time.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is just to scrutinize records of events long after they have happened.
……………………………………..
Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum mechanics works only for “ensembles” of many particles. The larger ensemble, the better.
……………………………………..

……………………………………..
“Quantum trajectory theory makes predictions that are impossible to make with the standard formulation,” Devoret said. In particular, it can predict how individual quantum objects such as particles will behave when they are observed — that’s to say, when measurements are made on them.
……………………………………..
Schrödinger’s equation can’t tell us what to expect from a lone quantum jump.
……………………………………..
Measurement derails the Schrödinger equation because the act of observation (due to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle) injects a noise into the system.
……………………………………..

A new quantum trajectory theory(QTT) uses careful and complete observations of the way the system has behaved so far to predict what it will do in the future.
It gives us the story of an individual particle — and the ability to see where it might be headed next.

……………………………………..
…………………………………………

In double-slit experiment,  individual photons that pass through a wall with two slits produce patterns on a screen as if they’re all waves interacting — until we  set up a photon detector to measure which slits each photon passes through, at which point they produce two bright lines as if they’re individual photons.

……………………………………..
In superposition, quantum particles travel as  wave taking two paths at once. But measurement or observation  collapses these into individual particles taking a single path at one time.

……………………………………..

Physicists explain big(planets) and small things(electrons) by two separate rulebooks.

…………………………………………
General relativity explains  gravitational force : orbiting planets, colliding galaxies, the expanding universe as a whole. Quantum mechanics explains the other three forces—electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces.
…………………………………………

Just as a pixel is the smallest unit of an image on a digital screen, so there might be an unbreakable smallest unit of coordinating geometry: a quantum of space-time.
…………………………………………
We can think of the division between the relativistic (subjective/survival) and quantum (objective/logical) systems as “smooth” versus “chunky.”
…………………………………………

Any relativistically continuous cause has deterministic local effect. Quantum events happen in jumps without any local effect.

…………………………………………
Phase space unifies classical mechanics and quantum mechanics in order to determine the future behavior of a system.
…………………………………………
To cover all possible states of a physical system, classical phase space includes both  configuration and momentum spaces  occupied by all the objects in the system.
…………………………………………
Physical space or configuration space  might be mathematically  defined by a finite or infinite dimensional manifold M.
…………………………………………

In a phase space, every degree of freedom or parameter of the system is represented as an axis of a multidimensional space; a one-dimensional system is called a phase line, while a two-dimensional system is called a phase plane.
…………………………………………
Every quantum mechanical observable corresponds to a unique function or distribution on phase space, and vice versa.

…………………………………………

Quantization is the procedure to construct a quantum system whose microscopic  aggregate corresponds to a given classical system.
…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics allows temporal or spatial connections forbidden by classical physics.
…………………………………………

Two entangled particles can influence each other instantly, even though they are a mile apart.
………………………………………
Piling up energy is   piling up mass.
Our universe begins to  fold in on itself like a black hole if we interpret smooth relativistic laws in a chunky quantum style, or vice versa.

…………………………………………

Craig Hogan suspects that the quantum units of space itself might be large enough to be studied directly.
…………………………………………

Relativity’s space-time curvature led to the modern conception of the Big Bang and black holes, not to mention atomic bombs and the time adjustments essential to our phone’s GPS.
…………………………………………
Quantum nonlocality did much more than reformulate equations of electricity, magnetism, and light. It provided the conceptual tools for the Large Hadron Collider, solar cells and all of modern microelectronics.
…………………………………………
We need a theory of quantum-gravity to tell us where the laws of nature came from, and whether the cosmos is built on uncertainty or whether it is fundamentally deterministic, with every event linked definitively to a cause.
…………………………………………
Scientists are trying to measure the graininess of space.
…………………………………………

Relativity’s space is continuous and infinitely divisible.
…………………………………………
A pixel is the smallest unit of a digital  image. A photon is the smallest unit of light. A quantum of space might be an unbreakable smallest unit of distance. The theater of reality in which gravity acts would itself be divided into unbreakable quantum units.
…………………………………………
Like chunky space, string theory averts gravitational catastrophe by introducing a finite, smallest scale to the universe.
…………………………………………
Just as a TV picture can create the impression of depth from a bunch of flat pixels, our seemingly three-dimensional reality might emerge from its two-dimensional units.
…………………………………………
A success for the holometer would mean failure for string theory. If space is chunky, the holometer’s  mirrors would constantly wander about and beams would be slightly out of sync.
…………………………………………
The other three laws of physics follow quantum rules, so it makes sense that gravity must as well.
…………………………………………
For most of today’s theorists, classical physics is a kind of illusion, an approximation of the quantum world.
…………………………………………

Even to Feynman, fractional spin and anyons seemed to be mere speculations.
…………………………………………
Vacuum is the state of minimum energy.
Void /spacetime /coordinate  is  the theoretical blank address to keep everything from happening in the same place.
…………………………………………
In Newtonian physics, vacuum is a void where separated particles exist as real things.
In quantum theory, particles are merely excitations or  disturbances in the respective  fields, the  things identical to uncaused reality.
……………………………………..
Feynman’s path integral formulation without hidden assumptions ( fields)  is a quantum  version of  Newton’s particle approach.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum fields spontaneously fluctuate in intensity and direction.
……………………………………..
Higher the frequency and amplitude of a wave, higher the power and energy.
……………………………………..

A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude.
……………………………………..

Amplitude modulation or AM is the method of varying the instantaneous amplitude (signal strength)   of carrier signal in proportion to instantaneous amplitude of message signal.This technique contrasts with frequency modulation, in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation, in which its phase is varied.
……………………………………..

If two signals are at their highest peak (+) at the same time they are in phase. If one signal is at its highest peak (+) while the other  is at its lowest peak (-), they are 180 degrees out of phase.

…………………………………………

The phase of a wave is the distance between the wave’s origin point and its  first zero-crossing.
…………………………………………

Different states of matter are called  liquid, solid, and gas phases. In each phase,  molecules interact differently showing distinct physical properties.
……………………………………..

Superfluid, superconducting, and quantum critical phases are some exotic states of matter.
……………………………………..
Quantum fields such as the Higgs field can  exist in different phases i. e. states .
………………………………..
Quantum speed limits are  actually Einsteinian.
…………………………………………

Although Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle  relates position and momentum uncertainties, time is treated as a parameter(fixable in equation) rather than an observable.

…………………………………………
Many experiments demonstrating an instantaneous quantum connection between two widely separated particles  accept “spooky action at a distance”.
…………………………………………
The challenge to quantum physicists is to find ways to make a large scale universe pop out of their equations.

…………………………………………

Relativity, despite its perceived strangeness, is as classical as Newtonian mechanics.
…………………………………………
The demonstrated reality of spooky action at a distance shows that there is no underlying classical determinism as Einstein hoped.
…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics rejects   classical  ‘locality’  where a physical event can affect only its immediate surroundings.

…………………………………………

Scientists still wonder about the actual mechanism behind quantum superpositions.

……………………………………..

Superposition is a mathematical as well as experimental demand saying  that tiny objects can exist in multiple places or states simultaneously.

……………………………………..

Superposition  is a cornerstone of quantum physics.

……………………………………..
Quarks and electrons are fundamental particles because they have no substructures.

…………………………………………
String theory is an intellectual  adventure  to explain the substructure of elementary particles.

…………………………………………
Though electrons are elementary particles  ,both protons and neutrons are composed of quarks.

…………………………………………
String theory is a quantum-gravity theory.
…………………………………………
There might be extra dimensions.

…………………………………………
If string theory is true, there are extra dimensions.

…………………………………………
The compact space along an extra dimension might be too small for the  extra dimension to be detected.

…………………………………………
It took many years to confirm that the two-dimensional surface of the earth is curved or compact along a third dimension.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Everything we can interact with might be stuck to the four-dimensional surface of a larger-dimensional space-time bowl.

…………………………………………

A dimension is not a crazy idea. A dimension is a direction.

…………………………………………
We live in three dimensional space.

…………………………………………
If we want to specify the location of something in space, we have to give three numbers.

…………………………………………
Speculated other worlds/universes  are not other dimensions themselves.

…………………………………………
The mathematics of quantum systems apply to elementary particles that  can be studied in the lab.

…………………………………………
Quantum description is probabilistic. It doesn’t tell us for certain that something is here or there. It  tells  us  that something is both here and there  at the same time. Dictionaries have  got a new word   ‘superposition’.

…………………………………………

Quantum superposed states might exist in multiverses i.e. different  worlds. This is called the many-worlds interpretation.
…………………………………………

Quantum many-worlds interpretation  says  that when you flip a coin, instead of there being a definite outcome, there are both outcomes, and then the world splits into these two  superposed worlds.

…………………………………………
Conflicting observations(vertical vs  horizontal ) of the same reality (a photon’s polarization) may both be correct, according quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend.” For someone ignorant of the result of the measurements, the unmeasured photon is still in a state of superposition.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics describes how the world works at subatomic scale.

…………………………………………

According to quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend” , no measurement result is  absolute but relative to the observer.
…………………………………………
Quantum mechanics  is the most successful theory ever formulated. Its experimental predictions are often beyond question.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Quantum entanglement connects us to the edge of the universe.
…………………………………………
Instead of describing the universe in terms of particles and forces, quantum entanglement describes it as a quantum information processing.
…………………………………………
The space-time fabric of the universe might emerge from the entangled correlation of quantum information.
…………………………………………

Space-time might be generated  by quantum entanglement.
…………………………………………
Copying does not exist in the quantum world.
…………………………………………

If we wonder  what’s truly fundamental in this Universe, we have to to investigate matter and energy on the smallest  scale.

…………………………………………
On smallest scale individual particles lack well-defined properties like position and momentum.

…………………………………………

What appears to us as  quantum indeterminism, is actually to regard our common sense more  fundamental  than logic.
…………………………………………
Quantum mechanics has doomed Einstein’s  dream — of a  deterministic description of reality —  at least  theoretically.
…………………………………………

Gravitational effects are  negligible at the quantum level.

……………………………………..

General relativity and quantum mechanics can describe nature only  within their domains of applicability.
……………………………………..
Since the gravitational field is  a deformation of spacetime itself, gravity  is supposed to act on particles interactions, or even on their existence.
……………………………………..
We still don’t know whether quantum field theory is stable if we take into account the gravitational field.
……………………………………..
Structures like black holes or cosmological singularities are the assumptions of  general relativity, but their critical points, their subatomic singularities belong to the quantum realm. So physicists bother about such enigmatic structures to combine quantum mechanics with relativity.

……………………………………..
……………………………………..

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

We can’t expect a better interpretation of quantum mechanics at the cost of classical realism.

…………………………………………

As individual quantum systems, particles appear to scatter off empty branches of the wave-function, and conversely travel through particles as if they were waves.

…………………………………………

Geo-centrism was dismissed by the Copernican revolution; perpetual  motion dismissed by thermodynamics, and absolute space and time dismissed by relativity theory.

…………………………………………

Local realism (locality, determinism and causation)  appears to be violated by quantum entanglement.

…………………………………………

Quantum “particle”, or configurations do not obey the principle of inertia and the conservation of momentum.

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is like the worst weather forecasts giving only the average daily amount of rain expected over the next month. It says nothing about specific atoms or electrons doing things in real time.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is just to scrutinize records of events long after they have happened.
……………………………………..
Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum mechanics works only for “ensembles” of many particles. The larger ensemble, the better.
……………………………………..

……………………………………..
“Quantum trajectory theory makes predictions that are impossible to make with the standard formulation,” Devoret said. In particular, it can predict how individual quantum objects such as particles will behave when they are observed — that’s to say, when measurements are made on them.
……………………………………..
Schrödinger’s equation can’t tell us what to expect from a lone quantum jump.
……………………………………..
Measurement derails the Schrödinger equation because the act of observation (due to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle) injects a noise into the system.
……………………………………..

A new quantum trajectory theory(QTT) uses careful and complete observations of the way the system has behaved so far to predict what it will do in the future.
It gives us the story of an individual particle — and the ability to see where it might be headed next.

……………………………………..
…………………………………………

In double-slit experiment,  individual photons that pass through a wall with two slits produce patterns on a screen as if they’re all waves interacting — until we  set up a photon detector to measure which slits each photon passes through, at which point they produce two bright lines as if they’re individual photons.

……………………………………..
In superposition, quantum particles travel as  wave taking two paths at once. But measurement or observation  collapses these into individual particles taking a single path at one time.

……………………………………..

Physicists explain big(planets) and small things(electrons) by two separate rulebooks.


…………………………………………
General relativity explains  gravitational force : orbiting planets, colliding galaxies, the expanding universe as a whole. Quantum mechanics explains the other three forces—electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces.
…………………………………………

Just as a pixel is the smallest unit of an image on a digital screen, so there might be an unbreakable smallest unit of coordinating geometry: a quantum of space-time.
…………………………………………
We can think of the division between the relativistic (subjective/survival) and quantum (objective/logical) systems as “smooth” versus “chunky.”
…………………………………………


Any relativistically continuous cause has deterministic local effect. Quantum events happen in jumps without any local effect.


…………………………………………
Phase space unifies classical mechanics and quantum mechanics in order to determine the future behavior of a system.
…………………………………………
To cover all possible states of a physical system, classical phase space includes both  configuration and momentum spaces  occupied by all the objects in the system.
…………………………………………
Physical space or configuration space  might be mathematically  defined by a finite or infinite dimensional manifold M.
…………………………………………

In a phase space, every degree of freedom or parameter of the system is represented as an axis of a multidimensional space; a one-dimensional system is called a phase line, while a two-dimensional system is called a phase plane.
…………………………………………
Every quantum mechanical observable corresponds to a unique function or distribution on phase space, and vice versa.


…………………………………………

Quantization is the procedure to construct a quantum system whose microscopic  aggregate corresponds to a given classical system.
…………………………………………


Quantum mechanics allows temporal or spatial connections forbidden by classical physics.
…………………………………………


Two entangled particles can influence each other instantly, even though they are a mile apart.
………………………………………
Piling up energy is   piling up mass.
Our universe begins to  fold in on itself like a black hole if we interpret smooth relativistic laws in a chunky quantum style, or vice versa.


…………………………………………

Craig Hogan suspects that the quantum units of space itself might be large enough to be studied directly.
…………………………………………


Relativity’s space-time curvature led to the modern conception of the Big Bang and black holes, not to mention atomic bombs and the time adjustments essential to our phone’s GPS.
…………………………………………
Quantum nonlocality did much more than reformulate equations of electricity, magnetism, and light. It provided the conceptual tools for the Large Hadron Collider, solar cells and all of modern microelectronics.
…………………………………………
We need a theory of quantum-gravity to tell us where the laws of nature came from, and whether the cosmos is built on uncertainty or whether it is fundamentally deterministic, with every event linked definitively to a cause.
…………………………………………
Scientists are trying to measure the graininess of space.
…………………………………………

Relativity’s space is continuous and infinitely divisible.
…………………………………………
A pixel is the smallest unit of a digital  image. A photon is the smallest unit of light. A quantum of space might be an unbreakable smallest unit of distance. The theater of reality in which gravity acts would itself be divided into unbreakable quantum units.
…………………………………………
Like chunky space, string theory averts gravitational catastrophe by introducing a finite, smallest scale to the universe.
…………………………………………
Just as a TV picture can create the impression of depth from a bunch of flat pixels, our seemingly three-dimensional reality might emerge from its two-dimensional units.
…………………………………………
A success for the holometer would mean failure for string theory. If space is chunky, the holometer’s  mirrors would constantly wander about and beams would be slightly out of sync.
…………………………………………
The other three laws of physics follow quantum rules, so it makes sense that gravity must as well.
…………………………………………
For most of today’s theorists, classical physics is a kind of illusion, an approximation of the quantum world.
…………………………………………


Even to Feynman, fractional spin and anyons seemed to be mere speculations.
…………………………………………
Vacuum is the state of minimum energy.
Void /spacetime /coordinate  is  the theoretical blank address to keep everything from happening in the same place.
…………………………………………
In Newtonian physics, vacuum is a void where separated particles exist as real things.
In quantum theory, particles are merely excitations or  disturbances in the respective  fields, the  things identical to uncaused reality.
……………………………………..
Feynman’s path integral formulation without hidden assumptions ( fields)  is a quantum  version of  Newton’s particle approach.
…………………………………………


…………………………………………


Quantum fields spontaneously fluctuate in intensity and direction.
……………………………………..
Higher the frequency and amplitude of a wave, higher the power and energy.
……………………………………..

A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude.
……………………………………..

Amplitude modulation or AM is the method of varying the instantaneous amplitude (signal strength)   of carrier signal in proportion to instantaneous amplitude of message signal.This technique contrasts with frequency modulation, in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation, in which its phase is varied.
……………………………………..


If two signals are at their highest peak (+) at the same time they are in phase. If one signal is at its highest peak (+) while the other  is at its lowest peak (-), they are 180 degrees out of phase.

…………………………………………

The phase of a wave is the distance between the wave’s origin point and its  first zero-crossing.
…………………………………………


Different states of matter are called  liquid, solid, and gas phases. In each phase,  molecules interact differently showing distinct physical properties.
……………………………………..


Superfluid, superconducting, and quantum critical phases are some exotic states of matter.
……………………………………..
Quantum fields such as the Higgs field can  exist in different phases i. e. states .
………………………………..
Quantum speed limits are  actually Einsteinian.
…………………………………………

Although Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle  relates position and momentum uncertainties, time is treated as a parameter(fixable in equation) rather than an observable.


…………………………………………
Many experiments demonstrating an instantaneous quantum connection between two widely separated particles  accept “spooky action at a distance”.
…………………………………………
The challenge to quantum physicists is to find ways to make a large scale universe pop out of their equations.


…………………………………………

Relativity, despite its perceived strangeness, is as classical as Newtonian mechanics.
…………………………………………
The demonstrated reality of spooky action at a distance shows that there is no underlying classical determinism as Einstein hoped.
…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics rejects   classical  ‘locality’  where a physical event can affect only its immediate surroundings.


…………………………………………

Scientists still wonder about the actual mechanism behind quantum superpositions.

……………………………………..

Superposition is a mathematical as well as experimental demand saying  that tiny objects can exist in multiple places or states simultaneously.

……………………………………..

Superposition  is a cornerstone of quantum physics.

……………………………………..
Quarks and electrons are fundamental particles because they have no substructures.


…………………………………………
String theory is an intellectual  adventure  to explain the substructure of elementary particles.


…………………………………………
Though electrons are elementary particles  ,both protons and neutrons are composed of quarks.


…………………………………………
String theory is a quantum-gravity theory.
…………………………………………
There might be extra dimensions.


…………………………………………
If string theory is true, there are extra dimensions.


…………………………………………
The compact space along an extra dimension might be too small for the  extra dimension to be detected.


…………………………………………
It took many years to confirm that the two-dimensional surface of the earth is curved or compact along a third dimension.


…………………………………………


…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Everything we can interact with might be stuck to the four-dimensional surface of a larger-dimensional space-time bowl.


…………………………………………


A dimension is not a crazy idea. A dimension is a direction.


…………………………………………
We live in three dimensional space.


…………………………………………
If we want to specify the location of something in space, we have to give three numbers.


…………………………………………
Speculated other worlds/universes  are not other dimensions themselves.


…………………………………………
The mathematics of quantum systems apply to elementary particles that  can be studied in the lab.


…………………………………………
Quantum description is probabilistic. It doesn’t tell us for certain that something is here or there. It  tells  us  that something is both here and there  at the same time. Dictionaries have  got a new word   ‘superposition’.


…………………………………………

Quantum superposed states might exist in multiverses i.e. different  worlds. This is called the many-worlds interpretation.
…………………………………………


Quantum many-worlds interpretation  says  that when you flip a coin, instead of there being a definite outcome, there are both outcomes, and then the world splits into these two  superposed worlds.

…………………………………………
Conflicting observations(vertical vs  horizontal ) of the same reality (a photon’s polarization) may both be correct, according quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend.” For someone ignorant of the result of the measurements, the unmeasured photon is still in a state of superposition.


…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics describes how the world works at subatomic scale.


…………………………………………

According to quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend” , no measurement result is  absolute but relative to the observer.
…………………………………………
Quantum mechanics  is the most successful theory ever formulated. Its experimental predictions are often beyond question.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Quantum entanglement connects us to the edge of the universe.
…………………………………………
Instead of describing the universe in terms of particles and forces, quantum entanglement describes it as a quantum information processing.
…………………………………………
The space-time fabric of the universe might emerge from the entangled correlation of quantum information.
…………………………………………


Space-time might be generated  by quantum entanglement.
…………………………………………
Copying does not exist in the quantum world.  
…………………………………………

If we wonder  what’s truly fundamental in this Universe, we have to to investigate matter and energy on the smallest  scale.

…………………………………………
On smallest scale individual particles lack well-defined properties like position and momentum.

…………………………………………

What appears to us as  quantum indeterminism, is actually to regard our common sense more  fundamental  than logic.
…………………………………………
Quantum mechanics has doomed Einstein’s  dream — of a  deterministic description of reality —  at least  theoretically.
…………………………………………

Gravitational effects are  negligible at the quantum level.

……………………………………..

General relativity and quantum mechanics can describe nature only  within their domains of applicability.
……………………………………..
Since the gravitational field is  a deformation of spacetime itself, gravity  is supposed to act on particles interactions, or even on their existence.
……………………………………..
We still don’t know whether quantum field theory is stable if we take into account the gravitational field.
……………………………………..
Structures like black holes or cosmological singularities are the assumptions of  general relativity, but their critical points, their subatomic singularities belong to the quantum realm. So physicists bother about such enigmatic structures to combine quantum mechanics with relativity.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

Some Quantum Darwinists dream of  a theoretical framework that needs no classical environment, but just shows how classical reality can emerge from mutually interactive  quantum systems!

…………………………………………

Fields  in QFT determine how many fundamental particles (with spin between 0 and 1, inclusive) there are, in a particular state, at a specific spacetime region.

……………………………………..

Our science teachers should promote

the vision that any physical theory is just a tool (imaginary model) for making calculations. Reality needs (what does it even mean?) no  blueprint.

……………………………………..

“I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.”

-Richard Feynman

……………………………………..

Though physicists use quantum mathe’magic’ to discover new particles or to invent quantum computers, they still don’t know how ‘real’istic their equations are.

……………………………………..

Physicists have put off thinking about the true meaning of quantum mechanics for the time being.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

Today’s physicists can directly measure the complex amplitudes of a nonlocal wave function of two entangled photons, rather than relying on tomographic(computerised image of a particular plane through an object from multiple X-ray measurements) or other indirect techniques.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

“Quantum Physics is fine, human bias about reality is the real problem”.

-Ethan Siegel

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

We can’t expect a better interpretation of quantum mechanics at the cost of classical realism.

…………………………………………

As individual quantum systems, particles appear to scatter off empty branches of the wave-function, and conversely travel through particles as if they were waves.

…………………………………………

Geo-centrism was dismissed by the Copernican revolution; perpetual  motion dismissed by thermodynamics, and absolute space and time dismissed by relativity theory.

…………………………………………

Local realism (locality, determinism and causation)  appears to be violated by quantum entanglement.

…………………………………………

Quantum “particle”, or configurations do not obey the principle of inertia and the conservation of momentum.

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is like the worst weather forecasts giving only the average daily amount of rain expected over the next month. It says nothing about specific atoms or electrons doing things in real time.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is just to scrutinize records of events long after they have happened.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum mechanics works only for “ensembles” of many particles. The larger ensemble, the better.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

“Quantum trajectory theory makes predictions that are impossible to make with the standard formulation,” Devoret said. In particular, it can predict how individual quantum objects such as particles will behave when they are observed — that’s to say, when measurements are made on them.

……………………………………..

Schrödinger’s equation can’t tell us what to expect from a lone quantum jump.

……………………………………..

Measurement derails the Schrödinger equation because the act of observation (due to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle) injects a noise into the system.

……………………………………..

A new quantum trajectory theory(QTT) uses careful and complete observations of the way the system has behaved so far to predict what it will do in the future.

It gives us the story of an individual particle — and the ability to see where it might be headed next.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

In double-slit experiment,  individual photons that pass through a wall with two slits produce patterns on a screen as if they’re all waves interacting — until we  set up a photon detector to measure which slits each photon passes through, at which point they produce two bright lines as if they’re individual photons.

……………………………………..

In superposition, quantum particles travel as  wave taking two paths at once. But measurement or observation  collapses these into individual particles taking a single path at one time.

……………………………………..

Physicists explain big(planets) and small things(electrons) by two separate rulebooks.

…………………………………………

General relativity explains  gravitational force : orbiting planets, colliding galaxies, the expanding universe as a whole. Quantum mechanics explains the other three forces—electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces.

…………………………………………

Just as a pixel is the smallest unit of an image on a digital screen, so there might be an unbreakable smallest unit of coordinating geometry: a quantum of space-time.

…………………………………………

We can think of the division between the relativistic (subjective/survival) and quantum (objective/logical) systems as “smooth” versus “chunky.”

…………………………………………

Any relativistically continuous cause has deterministic local effect. Quantum events happen in jumps without any local effect.

…………………………………………

Phase space unifies classical mechanics and quantum mechanics in order to determine the future behavior of a system.

…………………………………………

To cover all possible states of a physical system, classical phase space includes both  configuration and momentum spaces  occupied by all the objects in the system.

…………………………………………

Physical space or configuration space  might be mathematically  defined by a finite or infinite dimensional manifold M.

…………………………………………

In a phase space, every degree of freedom or parameter of the system is represented as an axis of a multidimensional space; a one-dimensional system is called a phase line, while a two-dimensional system is called a phase plane.

…………………………………………

Every quantum mechanical observable corresponds to a unique function or distribution on phase space, and vice versa.

…………………………………………

Quantization is the procedure to construct a quantum system whose microscopic  aggregate corresponds to a given classical system.

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics allows temporal or spatial connections forbidden by classical physics.

…………………………………………

Two entangled particles can influence each other instantly, even though they are a mile apart.

………………………………………

Piling up energy is   piling up mass.

Our universe begins to  fold in on itself like a black hole if we interpret smooth relativistic laws in a chunky quantum style, or vice versa.

…………………………………………

Craig Hogan suspects that the quantum units of space itself might be large enough to be studied directly.

…………………………………………

Relativity’s space-time curvature led to the modern conception of the Big Bang and black holes, not to mention atomic bombs and the time adjustments essential to our phone’s GPS.

…………………………………………

Quantum nonlocality did much more than reformulate equations of electricity, magnetism, and light. It provided the conceptual tools for the Large Hadron Collider, solar cells and all of modern microelectronics.

…………………………………………

We need a theory of quantum-gravity to tell us where the laws of nature came from, and whether the cosmos is built on uncertainty or whether it is fundamentally deterministic, with every event linked definitively to a cause.

…………………………………………

Scientists are trying to measure the graininess of space.

…………………………………………

Relativity’s space is continuous and infinitely divisible.

…………………………………………

A pixel is the smallest unit of a digital  image. A photon is the smallest unit of light. A quantum of space might be an unbreakable smallest unit of distance. The theater of reality in which gravity acts would itself be divided into unbreakable quantum units.

…………………………………………

Like chunky space, string theory averts gravitational catastrophe by introducing a finite, smallest scale to the universe.

…………………………………………

Just as a TV picture can create the impression of depth from a bunch of flat pixels, our seemingly three-dimensional reality might emerge from its two-dimensional units.

…………………………………………

A success for the holometer would mean failure for string theory. If space is chunky, the holometer’s  mirrors would constantly wander about and beams would be slightly out of sync.

…………………………………………

The other three laws of physics follow quantum rules, so it makes sense that gravity must as well.

…………………………………………

For most of today’s theorists, classical physics is a kind of illusion, an approximation of the quantum world.

…………………………………………

Even to Feynman, fractional spin and anyons seemed to be mere speculations.

…………………………………………

Vacuum is the state of minimum energy.

Void /spacetime /coordinate  is  the theoretical blank address to keep everything from happening in the same place.

…………………………………………

In Newtonian physics, vacuum is a void where separated particles exist as real things.

In quantum theory, particles are merely excitations or  disturbances in the respective  fields, the  things identical to uncaused reality.

……………………………………..

Feynman’s path integral formulation without hidden assumptions ( fields)  is a quantum  version of  Newton’s particle approach.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum fields spontaneously fluctuate in intensity and direction.

……………………………………..

Higher the frequency and amplitude of a wave, higher the power and energy.

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A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude.

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Amplitude modulation or AM is the method of varying the instantaneous amplitude (signal strength)   of carrier signal in proportion to instantaneous amplitude of message signal.This technique contrasts with frequency modulation, in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation, in which its phase is varied.

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If two signals are at their highest peak (+) at the same time they are in phase. If one signal is at its highest peak (+) while the other  is at its lowest peak (-), they are 180 degrees out of phase.

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The phase of a wave is the distance between the wave’s origin point and its  first zero-crossing.

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Different states of matter are called  liquid, solid, and gas phases. In each phase,  molecules interact differently showing distinct physical properties.

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Superfluid, superconducting, and quantum critical phases are some exotic states of matter.

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Quantum fields such as the Higgs field can  exist in different phases i. e. states .

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Quantum speed limits are  actually Einsteinian.

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Although Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle  relates position and momentum uncertainties, time is treated as a parameter(fixable in equation) rather than an observable.

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Many experiments demonstrating an instantaneous quantum connection between two widely separated particles  accept “spooky action at a distance”.

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The challenge to quantum physicists is to find ways to make a large scale universe pop out of their equations.

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Relativity, despite its perceived strangeness, is as classical as Newtonian mechanics.

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The demonstrated reality of spooky action at a distance shows that there is no underlying classical determinism as Einstein hoped.

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Quantum mechanics rejects   classical  ‘locality’  where a physical event can affect only its immediate surroundings.

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Scientists still wonder about the actual mechanism behind quantum superpositions.

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Superposition is a mathematical as well as experimental demand saying  that tiny objects can exist in multiple places or states simultaneously.

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Superposition  is a cornerstone of quantum physics.

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Quarks and electrons are fundamental particles because they have no substructures.

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String theory is an intellectual  adventure  to explain the substructure of elementary particles.

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Though electrons are elementary particles  ,both protons and neutrons are composed of quarks.

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String theory is a quantum-gravity theory.

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There might be extra dimensions.

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If string theory is true, there are extra dimensions.

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The compact space along an extra dimension might be too small for the  extra dimension to be detected.

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It took many years to confirm that the two-dimensional surface of the earth is curved or compact along a third dimension.

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Everything we can interact with might be stuck to the four-dimensional surface of a larger-dimensional space-time bowl.

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A dimension is not a crazy idea. A dimension is a direction.

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We live in three dimensional space.

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If we want to specify the location of something in space, we have to give three numbers.

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Speculated other worlds/universes  are not other dimensions themselves.

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The mathematics of quantum systems apply to elementary particles that  can be studied in the lab.

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Quantum description is probabilistic. It doesn’t tell us for certain that something is here or there. It  tells  us  that something is both here and there  at the same time. Dictionaries have  got a new word   ‘superposition’.

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Quantum superposed states might exist in multiverses i.e. different  worlds. This is called the many-worlds interpretation.

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Quantum many-worlds interpretation  says  that when you flip a coin, instead of there being a definite outcome, there are both outcomes, and then the world splits into these two  superposed worlds.

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Conflicting observations(vertical vs  horizontal ) of the same reality (a photon’s polarization) may both be correct, according quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend.” For someone ignorant of the result of the measurements, the unmeasured photon is still in a state of superposition.

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Quantum mechanics describes how the world works at subatomic scale.

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According to quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend” , no measurement result is  absolute but relative to the observer.

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Quantum mechanics  is the most successful theory ever formulated. Its experimental predictions are often beyond question.

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Quantum entanglement connects us to the edge of the universe.

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Instead of describing the universe in terms of particles and forces, quantum entanglement describes it as a quantum information processing.

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The space-time fabric of the universe might emerge from the entangled correlation of quantum information.

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Space-time might be generated  by quantum entanglement.

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Copying does not exist in the quantum world.

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If we wonder  what’s truly fundamental in this Universe, we have to to investigate matter and energy on the smallest  scale.

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On smallest scale individual particles lack well-defined properties like position and momentum.

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What appears to us as  quantum indeterminism, is actually to regard our common sense more  fundamental  than logic.

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Quantum mechanics has doomed Einstein’s  dream — of a  deterministic description of reality —  at least  theoretically.

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Gravitational effects are  negligible at the quantum level.

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General relativity and quantum mechanics can describe nature only  within their domains of applicability.

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Since the gravitational field is  a deformation of spacetime itself, gravity  is supposed to act on particles interactions, or even on their existence.

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We still don’t know whether quantum field theory is stable if we take into account the gravitational field.

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Structures like black holes or cosmological singularities are the assumptions of  general relativity, but their critical points, their subatomic singularities belong to the quantum realm. So physicists bother about such enigmatic structures to combine quantum mechanics with relativity.

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

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When replication hosts  some existentially self-amplifying copying errors, it is called ‘evolution’.

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A replicator is anything that gets, directly or indirectly, copied.

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Survival of the fittest amounts to survival of the best replicating mechanism. It has nothing to do with strength, agility, longevity, happiness  or extraordinary intelligence. Even a shorter-lived replicator that is better at being copied become more abundant than a durable, long-lived one.

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Biological evolution is actually a contest between pieces of DNA to see which of them could make the most copies of themselves.

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A virus, whether genetic or memetic,  exists because a copying mechanism might not be equipped with a screening plugin.

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A virus is one of the mechanisms for copying and dispersing information in the universe.

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A virus is one of the universal replicators for copying and dispersing information in the universe.

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The human mind is the most advanced copying mechanism of all.

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The four variedly robust   characteristics of a replicator: penetration, copying, issuing instructions, and spreading.

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Human culture is best identified as a meme pool.

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We should put our meme pool to work for humanity’s best interests.

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Since our biological default plugin for understanding isn’t designed to understand what happens over millions or billions of years, Darwinism seems weird.

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Things or forms change. It is called entropy. By ‘evolution’, we just  make a distinction between the winners ( which continue to exist, grow, split and replicate), and the losers. When such a replicating machinery secures its existence by adapting to environmental feedbacks, we get something upon which we ascribe a special name called ‘life’.

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Asymmetries or things level out ( get simpler or symmetric) over time, like sand castles on a beach.

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Evolution is a scientific model of how things become more asymmetric and

complex; entropy describes how things become symmetric and simpler.

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Evolution is the opposite of entropy.

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Everything ,whether living or nonliving, serves as hardware (host medium) for the survival of some replicator-software. Due to universal Darwinism, only the most efficient transmission media gets to play host.

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Physical existence is a host-medium  spreading pointer states/quantum probabilities/fundamental replicators.

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Where there is life,there are replicators. And vice versa? Beware. Alien replicators imply alien life!

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If our media environments — everything from internet to infotainment  get too autonomous to need biological hosts, a memetic alien life/ AI  might try to get rid of  humanity in line with Darwinian natural selection.

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What is most radical about Dawkins’ theory is that it reduces existence to the level of mere media- as if things exist only to  facilitate the replication and passage of information.

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We needed Darwin to show us that life is the gift of mechanical evolution. We needed  Dawkins to tell us that neither individuals nor species but  replicators serve as the hot iron to bear the blind blows  of  evolutionary hammer.

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In Dawkins’s theory, very little difference exists between humans and machines, animals and ideologies, insects and internet memes— all are just containers of some replicators.

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In Dawkins’s theory, man is just one of many potential host media for transmission and reproduction of “content”.

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Our bodies are containers for genes. Our minds are containers for memes.

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“When you plant a fertile meme in my mind you literally parasitize my brain, turning it into a vehicle for the meme’s propagation in just the way that a virus may parasitize the genetic mechanism of a host cell.”

-Richard Dawkins

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According to Richard Dawkins’  famous book “The Selfish Gene”(1976), neither species nor individual beings play  central role in evolution. Living things serve as  useful “packages” for genes’ survival in harsh enviromrnt.

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According to Richard Dawkins’  famous book “The Selfish Gene”(1976), life on this planet emerged as the byproduct of multiplying replicators’(DNA molecules) survival  in more and more

precariously effective ways.

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Our entire anthropic environment can be seen as a dynamic host or  transmission media for the survival of replicators (both genes and memes) in general. Our entire planet ,as a survival package to protect  replicators, resembles Gaia(James Lovelock’s Alive Earth).
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Replicators are medium-born. Medium proliferates them. But they will use any medium extending their circulation and reproduction. After finding a better medium  replicators quickly leave the old medium without any gratitude.

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A medium serves as the host for replicators.

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Replicators cannot survive without a host.

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A host/medium/container/transmitter  is quickly chosen by replicators whenever it is available and effective.

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A sort of memetic spell forces us to share posts on social media. This 21st century has already become a  digital meme pool. Internet users(directly or indirectly) serve as mere links in a chain of host media for the passage of memetic information. Too much automation might one day replace our species with artificially intelligent robots. Replication will continue as well, or even better.

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..……………………………………………………………………………………

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An individual atom’s quantum spin is its electrons’ net spin.

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An individual atom’s spin on a surface can be used as qubits for quantum computer.

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Physicists can modify  interactions between pairs of atoms by controlling the position of  qubits.
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Classical computers make use of bits that can have either one of two distinct values, “0” or “1”.

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As well as taking two distinct values, “0” or “1”, qubits can also exist in quantum superposition states of “0” and “1” at the same time.

…………………………………………The quantumness of  qubits is  extremely fragile since information saturates soon into the surrounding environment.
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Since spin  happens when constituents (particles) of an object travel in circular path, fundamental particles like electrons have no classical spin.

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Momentum is the stability against gravity just by moving.

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An upright and stable spinning top wobbles and finally topples due to gravity. But electrons in a magnet never topple but mysteriously wobble!

Experimental observations force us to name this mystery as ‘spin’- a quantum meme!

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Math not only works with electrons’ ghostly spin, it also
allows us to build some cool electronic gadgets.

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Our familiar three(four)-dimensional Euclidean coordinate system is not a suitable meme to  describe a typical quantum-mechanical system. Often math and observations agree to introduce other memetic parameters (like spin) and memetic spaces (like a Hilbert or a Fock space).

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To match and model observations ,we force quantum mechanics’  mathematical space  to  “spin” around our classical particle. Classicality is a more familiar meme than quantumness………………………………………….

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..………………………………………………………………………………..

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“Life and Reality are not things you can have for yourself unless you accord them to all others. They do not belong to particular persons any more than the sun, moon and stars.”
-Alan Watts

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Reality is whatever exists without descriptive baggages.

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Both supernaturalism and celebrity culture rob us of realness.

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Digital algorithms will keep on  replacing humans in more and more jobs.

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Provided universal basic income frees us of daily drudgery,

people will need to be occupied and content.

Our brain is the most advanced computing system in the known universe. It demands a supply of  purposeful tasks to stay active. Even playing virtual reality games serves the purpose.

It is evolutionarily tested that  virtual reality (  whether that be computer games, supernatural practices or unbridled consumerism ) saves our species in such situations.

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Virtual reality is not always encased inside an isolated box. Both supernaturalism and consumerism serve as virtual reality games. If you forget to pray, you lose points. If you can’t buy BMW, you lose points.

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The meaning of life is just a fictional story- an instrument to enjoy some typical algorithmic sensations in neurons. It doesn’t matter whether the neurons are stimulated by digital  screen, by a packaged tour, or by thinking about an afterlife happiness.

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A significant percentage of Jewish people keep themselves engaged in supernatural books and rituals.  Since the government provides them with the basic necessities of life, they do no work. These ‘deep’ players of virtual reality game report higher levels of life-satisfaction than any other section of Israeli society. Even in

global surveys of life satisfaction, Israel beats most other countries. That’s universal basic income in action!

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Virtual reality games are more meaningful than work. Work is the means, virtual engazment is the goal!

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Our species is destined to playing  various virtual reality games  like supernaturalism, socialism, democracy, liberalism, consumerism, etc.

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In an entropically dying universe, our most sacred duty is to figure out how to get out of this self-destructive trap and to spread ourselves into (naturally/artificiality born)  newer and newer universes if possible. This is feasible only in a world of maximum knowledge and maximum love.

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Whenever we assume something that exists in reality, we actually presume  a

map/meme/ model of reality. Since all ‘models’ are wrong by definition, we should be ashamed to be fundamentalist!

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..……………………………………………………………………………………

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Our instinctive virtues and vices are actually autonomous algorithms (mechanistically blind evolutionary plugins) that help us survive in brutally   indifferent Darwinian struggle.

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

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General relativity explains  massive objects (stars and planets ). Quantum mechanics explains subatomic particles. A black hole (a huge mass compressed into a small space) might unify quantum mechanics and relativity.

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‘Matter’ is anything that occupies space and has mass.

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The universe is made of a “stuff” called ‘matter’.

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All matter is made up of substances called elements(atoms).

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Elements(atoms) have specific chemical and physical properties and cannot be broken down into other atoms through  chemical reactions. One element(atom ) turns into another only through nuclear fission or fusion.

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Atoms come together to form molecules. Both atoms and molecules are held together by a form of potential energy known as  ‘chemical energy’.

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Four natural states/phases  of matter:

solids, liquids, gases and plasma. The fifth state is the man-made Bose-Einstein condensates.
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The electrons of each atom are constantly in motion, so the atoms have a small vibration, but they are fixed in their position in a solid having tightly packed particles with very low kinetic energy.
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In a liquid, the particles are so loosely packed that they  flow around each other, giving the liquid an indefinite shape.
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In a gas, the particles stay far away from each other and expand due to high kinetic energy.

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Plasma of highly charged particles with extremely high kinetic energy is the most common state of matter(star)  in the universe.

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In  Bose-Einstein condensate with almost  absolute zero temperature, molecular motion drops so much that thousands of separate atoms begin to clump together to take on just one “super atom.”
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Adding or removing energy from matter causes a physical change as matter moves from one state(water) to another(gas/ice).

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When heat is removed from a liquid, its particles slow down and begin to settle in one location within the substance. Thus, the liquid becomes a solid.
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Matter has melting , freezing or triple point.

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Water, in triple point, exists in all three states at a temperature of 273.16 Kelvin and a pressure of 611.2 pascals.
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All matter is composed of one dimensional vibrating strings, smaller than any known or theorised particle.

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A correspondence or holographic duality exists between our perceived four dimensions and one-dimensional strings in an additional dimension.

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In “holographic duality”, a 2D holographic surface contains the information of a 3D image or object.
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Imaginative Homosapience can’t help wondering how our Universe operates on a fundamental level. The holographic principle might be humanity’s password to the world of quantum gravity.

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Holographic duality shows how the surface of a sphere — possessing two-dimensions — can be used to model a black hole in three dimensions.

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Holographically popped up 3D view shows why 2D black holes violate

Hawking’s calculation.

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Hawking radiational changes of  black hole information can be traced by measuring the surface area of related 3D hologram. The smallest  surface-area represents information content.

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As the surface of  3D hologram grows, a second one eventually replaces it as the smallest. Continuing to track the first surface reproduces Hawking’s error, but switching to the second one corrects the math by showing that the information contained in the black hole starts to drop.

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The hologram within a hologram shows what happens to a 2D black hole’s information.  The same concept might somehow apply to higher-dimensional black holes like those in our universe.

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Black holes  are regions of extreme  gravity, where space-time curves steeply toward a central point known as the singularity. Quantum uncertainty causes black holes to evaporate away by constantly  radiating a small amount of heat. If information is thus lost, it  violates  “unitarity” — a central principle of quantum mechanics that says the present always preserves information about the past.
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According to Hawking and Thorne, black holes kill information.

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According to Preskill, information escapes black holes, but we need a full-fledged theory of quantum gravity to describe how.

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According to complementarity proposal, information that crosses the event horizon of a black hole both reflects back out and passes inside, never to escape. Because no single observer can ever witness both inside and outside simultaneously, no contradiction arises.

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Ancients lived happily without caring  about atoms. But the knowledge of atoms has given us everything from steel to data  chips.

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Fields  in QFT determine how many fundamental particles (with spin between 0 and 1, inclusive) there are, in a particular state, at a specific spacetime region.

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Our science teachers should promote

the vision that any physical theory is just a tool (imaginary model) for making calculations. Reality needs (what does it even mean?) no  blueprint.

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“Not why the world and life exist, is  alarmingly arousing, but that both exist at all instead of nothingness. Isn’t it crazy to take them for granted?”

-Meme Updater

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Quantum mechanics (mathematical description of subatomic particles) says that it’s impossible to

separate reality from the observer of reality. Quantummechanically, things(actually measurable features about them) exist as statistical  probability densities before  interacting with classical(actually higher density parts) things ( observer).

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All matter is composed of atoms. Atoms are themselves made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Electron is fundamental. Proton and neutron are made of fundamental quarks. Even such fundamental particles are just excitations in their respective quantum fields.

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The Standard Model , the best technical philosophy with some fundamental constants,  represents a set of symmetries. The particular ways these symmetries break determine the spectrum of allowed particles..
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The Standard Model deals with  fermion fields (quarks and leptons), as well as boson fields (gluons, weak bosons, and photon), as well as the Higgs field and neutrino fields.
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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..

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According to Stephen Hawking, it may be the end of human freedom if we ever come into contact with intelligent aliens.

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Even extraterrestrial life elsewhere in the universe must be self-replicating, information carrying arrangements of molecules.

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Non-humans survive without intelligence.Humans are cosmic oddity.

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Some extraterrestrial life elsewhere in the universe might undergo  odd  adaptations to genetically evolve into  ‘space faring locust’ instead of  inventing  fire, wheel, differential equation, lunar probe or crew dragon.

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

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Some recent researches on black holes, in an attempt to unify relativity and  quantum mechanics, treat the universe like a hologram.

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According to some recent researches on black holes, all the information inside a region of the universe should be encoded on a ( sort of )

holographic screen of one-lesser dimension. This is the holographic principle.

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Since holographic screens depend on the choice

of an observer, the observer in an expanding universe might be a natural  part of the cosmic system.

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The observer-dependence of holographic screens implies  that the fundamental description of the universe depends on the choice of the observer.

……………………………………..

Quantummechanically, ‘higher probabilities’ / ‘pointer states’ asymptomatically approach to taking on classicality or observed ‘REALITY’. Since things don’t exist until we measure , Heisenberg’s uncertainty might play the role of the fundamental observer in the form of variated densities of ‘quantumness’.

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An object can exist only  if a

perfectly accurate mathematical description of the universe mathematically allows it to do so. Such a description resembles Tegmark’s  mathematical universe.

……………………………………..

Mere existing might just  be a duality(interchangeability)  for a mathematical tool for making perfectly

accurate predictions, and vice versa. That’s why our existential  reality consists of subjective yes-no questions.

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..……………………………………..
The higher energy ‘state’ of the Universe during inflation is like higher ‘level’ of water in a bottle before it leaks and the said level comes down to the bottom, of course, in a low-energy state.

But if the said level can’t reach the very bottom but stops above at some upper position resembling the finite, non-zero value of the Higgs field when its symmetry breaks — it might evolve into the dark energy (inflaton field in post-inflation avatar?).

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Quintessence (the purest essence of something) is the generic model unifying the inflationary field and the dark energy field as a whole.

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Inflation occurs at an energy scale of around 10^15 GeV while dark energy at an energy scale of around 1 milli-eV.

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After 13.8 billion years, we expect to be able to see back almost 13.8 billion light years. But the observed value is 92 billion light years because matter is gravitationally attracted , space itself has inflated ( 41.4billion ly) and is still expanding dark-enegetically(46billion ly).

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Matter moves through space, mostly due to the gravity.
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Maximum non-expanding cosmic distance is twice the age of the Universe in light years. Yet there are galaxies more distant than that!
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Due to the Universe’s expansion and the presence of dark energy, 97% of the observable Universe is already unreachable, even if Elon Musk left today at the speed of light.
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New space is constantly getting created in between the bound galaxies, groups and clusters.
……………………………………..

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Initial and inflationary high energetic false vacuum state (field theoretically some sort of ‘inflaton’ particle) was coupled to matter and radiation. Dark energy has no such coupling.

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“The more existential knowledge we have, the deeper we live.”
……………………………………..
A fish in the pond should live both horizontally and vertically to attain maximum experience. To live maximally, man needs both horizontal (social bonding) and vertical (existential knowledge) experience.
……………………………………..

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Cybernetics deals with the comparison of communication and control in biological and artificial systems.

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Neocybernetics dares to challenge our very thinking about thinking.

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Evolution is not just about biology.

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‘Evolution’ is not an exclusively biological term.

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Our universe has evolved in eight ways: quantum, particulate, galactic, stellar, planetary, chemical, biological and cultural.

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Any polymerization needs monomers (atoms or molecules) bound together by sharing pairs of electrons (covalent bonds).

………………………………..Monomers make up everything, living and non-living, naturally occurring and man-made.
……………………………….

All covalently bonded macromolecules are not polymers.

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The intermolecular forces(secondary bonds) binding polymer molecules together are weak(less than 5 kilocalories per mole), in comparison to the strong primary (20 to 80 kcal/mole) intermolecular bonds within metals or ceramics or to the intramolecular carbon-carbon backbone bonds holding the polymer molecule together.

…………………………….
The intermolecular forces(secondary bonds) binding polymer molecules together include London dispersion forces, hydrogen bonds, and an assortment of dipolar and induced-dipolar intermolecular van der Waals forces that govern the interactions between two noncovalently bound atoms or molecules.
………………………………..

A single atom of hydrogen is a monomer.

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Even though a single molecule of water is made up of multiple atoms – one hydrogen and two oxygen, it’s still a monomer.

…………………………………………
Proper manipulation of monomers gives birth to different polymers with a virtually limitless range of functions.

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‘Life’ might be a byproduct of nature’s polymer-making.

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Polymers have infiltrated almost every aspect of modern life.

…………………………………………

“Most polymers we use in everyday life are from petroleum-based products, and although they’re durable in use, they’re also durable in waste.”

-Marc Hillmyer

…………………………………………

Many biodegradable carriers bags are made from polylactic acid, a polymer derived from plant starch.

…………………………………………

Biodegradable polymers still make up less than 10% of the total plastics market. says Hillmyer.

…………………………………………

Biodegradable polymers cost too much. Too much oxygen atoms stiffen biodegradable polymers.

…………………………………………

Polymer membranes function as molecular sieves for separating gases, de­salinating seawater and keeping molecules apart inside fuel cells.

…………………………………………

Polymers can store data, with each monomer representing a single bit of information.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Glucose is a common natural monomer that bonds with other molecules to make starch and glycogen.

…………………………………………

The two monomers joining together can be the same kind, or they can be different.

…………………………………………

The number of molecules a monomer is able to bond with is determined by the number of active sites on the molecule where covalent bonds can be formed.

…………………………………………

Monomers—repeating molecular units—are connected into polymers by covalent bonds.

………………………………………

The word monomer comes from Greek mono- (one) and -mer (unit).

…………………………………………

Sometimes polymers are made from bound groups of monomer subunits.Such a subunit (of a few dozen monomers) is called oligomer.

…………………………………………

A polymer changes its properties if one or a few oligomers are added or removed.

…………………………………………

Collagen and liquid paraffin are oligomers.

…………………………………………

Monomers do not necessarily form polymers unless the conditions are right.

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

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An object can exist only  if a

perfectly accurate mathematical description of the universe mathematically allows it to do so. Such a description resembles Tegmark’s  mathematical universe.

……………………………………..

Mere existing might just  be a duality(interchangeability)  for a mathematical tool for making perfectly

accurate predictions, and vice versa. That’s why our existential  reality consists of subjective yes-no questions.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

According to Zurek’s quantum Darwinism , our concrete reality condenses(or gets transacted?) from the multiple competing options  residing fundamentally in quantum realm ( or in subjectively inaccessible  Tegmarkian objectivity/entity?).

…………………………………………

Quantum superposition doesn’t really mean that it is in several states at once; rather, it means that if we make a measurement we will see one of those outcomes. Our familiar existential reality is not objectively independent but  transactional/medium-born/ subjective/in-transit/signal-processed.

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The notation used to denote some integers and the their relations in a certain equation is irrelevant; the only properties of integers are those embodied by the relations between them. Only ‘mathematical relations’ are truly baggage-free.

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Any external reality independent of humans is purely mathematical. It is no coincidence that mathematical abstractions need no linguistic baggages.
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Any external reality independent of humans is purely mathematical. It is no coincidence that mathematical equations strip things down to their nakedness.
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An object can exist only  if a

perfectly accurate mathematical description of the universe mathematically allows it to do so. Such a description resembles Tegmark’s  mathematical universe.

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Mere existing might just  be a duality(interchangeability)  for a mathematical tool for making perfectly

accurate predictions, and vice versa. That’s why our existential  reality consists of subjective yes-no questions.

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According to Max Tegmark, a BEING is just a self-aware part of a giant mathematical object.
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Max Tegmark dares to say that our reality consists of mathematics.

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Reality’s ultimate element might not be particles, fields or strings but numbers.

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According to Max Tegmark, our reality is literally a mathematical structure.

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Although a stone is made of quarks and electrons , we humans have invented the word ‘stone’ to save time while describing its behaviours. Such linguistic baggages like ‘quarks’, ‘molecules’, ‘rocks’, ‘stars’ and ‘people’ are actually nothing but intuitively convenient optionals. A really objective description of reality needs no such baggages.

Only mathematical structures can be defined in a purely abstract way, without any human baggage.

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According to Max Tegmark, our so-called physical world might actually be, beyond our wildest expectations, A GIANT MATHEMATICAL OBJECT.
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Mathematical patterns in nature
( embedded in various equations of motion, gravity, electricity, magnetism, light, heat, chemistry, radioactivity or subatomic particles) are summarized as the laws of physics.

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The number ‘3’ ( the dimensionality of our space) belongs to a mathematical realm.

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Randomness, complexity and even change are just illusions if our universe is just an eternal mathematical structure.

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Max Tegmark’s mathematical universe is equivalent to the strong version of platonic reality.

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Along with his professional working on mainstream cosmology, Max Tegmark secretly kept himself engaged with his strange theory of mathematical universe.
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The universe is frighteningly indifferent to our emotion, ambition, achievement, art, science, religion and even our very existence.

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Space is too cold and most of the matter in it is too hot to let life emerge or exist.

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Accidents always happen before our eyes.Since the universe goes on and on across both time and space, every accident is likely to happen somewhere sometime. So the emergence of life is possible even as an accident.

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It can be mathematically proven that typing in an infinite series of random digits would eventually produce the complete works of William Shakespeare.

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Even a monkey hitting keys at random on a typewriter forever is bound to produce the complete works of William Shakespeare.

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

When replication hosts  some existentially self-amplifying copying errors, it is called ‘evolution’.

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A replicator is anything that gets, directly or indirectly, copied.

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Survival of the fittest amounts to survival of the best replicating mechanism. It has nothing to do with strength, agility, longevity, happiness  or extraordinary intelligence. Even a shorter-lived replicator that is better at being copied become more abundant than a durable, long-lived one.

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Biological evolution is actually a contest between pieces of DNA to see which of them could make the most copies of themselves.

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Replicators are medium-born. Medium proliferates them. But they will use any medium extending their circulation and reproduction. After finding a better medium  replicators quickly leave the old medium without any gratitude.

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A medium serves as the host for replicators.

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Replicators cannot survive without a host.

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A host/medium/container/transmitter  is quickly chosen by replicators whenever it is available and effective.

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A sort of memetic spell forces us to share posts on social media. This 21st century has already become a  digital meme pool. Internet users(directly or indirectly) serve as mere links in a chain of host media for the passage of memetic information. Too much automation might one day replace our species with artificially intelligent robots. Replication will continue as well, or even better.

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What is most radical about Dawkins’ theory is that it reduces existence to the level of mere media- as if things exist only to  facilitate the replication and passage of information.

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We needed Darwin to show us that life is the gift of mechanical evolution. We needed  Dawkins to tell us that neither individuals nor species but  replicators serve as the hot iron to bear the blind blows  of  evolutionary hammer.

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In Dawkins’s theory, very little difference exists between humans and machines, animals and ideologies, insects and internet memes— all are just containers of some replicators.

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In Dawkins’s theory, man is just one of many potential host media for transmission and reproduction of “content”.

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Our bodies are containers for genes. Our minds are containers for memes.

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“When you plant a fertile meme in my mind you literally parasitize my brain, turning it into a vehicle for the meme’s propagation in just the way that a virus may parasitize the genetic mechanism of a host cell.”

-Richard Dawkins

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According to Richard Dawkins’  famous book “The Selfish Gene”(1976), neither species nor individual beings play  central role in evolution. Living things serve as  useful “packages” for genes’ survival in harsh enviromrnt.

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According to Richard Dawkins’  famous book “The Selfish Gene”(1976), life on this planet emerged as the byproduct of multiplying replicators’(DNA molecules) survival  in more and more

precariously effective ways.

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Our entire anthropic environment can be seen as a dynamic host or  transmission media for the survival of replicators (both genes and memes) in general. Our entire planet ,as a survival package to protect  replicators, resembles Gaia(James Lovelock’s Alive Earth).
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Horizontal gene transfer occurs when genetic information is passed “sideways” (within own generation) to a relatively unrelated organism instead of an offspring.
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Vertical gene transfer is the transmission of genetic information from parent to offspring.

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Horizontal gene transfer spreads antibiotic resistance and harmful genes.
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Horizontal gene transfer helps bacteria and archaea to adapt to new environments via genomic variability.

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Horizontal gene transfer imcludes the horizontal transfer of DNA between chloroplast, or mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes.
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Information in extant genomes helps in dating the evolutionary tree of life.
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Horizontal gene transfer occurs when genetic information is passed “sideways” (within own generation) to a relatively unrelated organism instead of an offspring.
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Vertical gene transfer is the transmission of genetic information from parent to offspring.

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Horizontal gene transfer spreads antibiotic resistance and harmful genes.
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Horizontal gene transfer helps bacteria and archaea to adapt to new environments via genomic variability.

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Horizontal gene transfer imcludes the horizontal transfer of DNA between chloroplast, or mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes.
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Information in extant genomes helps in dating the evolutionary tree of life.
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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..………………………………………………………………..

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The higher energy ‘state’ of the Universe during inflation is like higher ‘level’ of water in a bottle before it leaks and the said level comes down to the bottom, of course, in a low-energy state.

But if the said level can’t reach the very bottom but stops above at some upper position resembling the finite, non-zero value of the Higgs field when its symmetry breaks — it might evolve into the dark energy (inflaton field in post-inflation avatar?).

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Quintessence (the purest essence of something) is the generic model unifying the inflationary field and the dark energy field as a whole.

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Inflation occurs at an energy scale of around 10^15 GeV while dark energy at an energy scale of around 1 milli-eV.

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After 13.8 billion years, we expect to be able to see back almost 13.8 billion light years. But the observed value is 92 billion light years because matter is gravitationally attracted , space itself has inflated ( 41.4billion ly) and is still expanding dark-enegetically(46billion ly).

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Matter moves through space, mostly due to the gravity.
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Maximum non-expanding cosmic distance is twice the age of the Universe in light years. Yet there are galaxies more distant than that!
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Due to the Universe’s expansion and the presence of dark energy, 97% of the observable Universe is already unreachable, even if Elon Musk left today at the speed of light.
……………………………………..
New space is constantly getting created in between the bound galaxies, groups and clusters.
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………………
Initial and inflationary high energetic false vacuum state (field theoretically some sort of ‘inflaton’ particle) was coupled to matter and radiation. Dark energy has no such coupling.

……………………………………..
“The more existential knowledge we have, the deeper we live.”
……………………………………..
A fish in the pond should live both horizontally and vertically to attain maximum experience. To live maximally, man needs both horizontal (social bonding) and vertical (existential knowledge) experience.
……………………………………..

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According to Einstein’s General Relativity, a matter-packed and yet globally homogeneous universe is inherently unstable ( either expanding or contracting ) against gravitational collapse.

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Einstein’s relativity is the juxtaposition of two alienated but mutually influencing aspects of reality in a single equation: a matter-and-energy side, and a space-and-time side.
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The initial inflationary Universe was temporarily in a highly energetic false vacuum state, where it had vacuum energy inherent to space itself. It later decayed into a lower-energy state or Big Bang.
……………………………………..
Many cosmological predictions that came out of inflation, have been confirmed.

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Along with the race between inflation ( 10^-33 seconds ) and gravitation, dark energy(six billion years) is responsible for about 70% current cosmic expansion rate.

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Nature is most complex on the intermediate (human) scale between the masses of atoms and stars.
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Man belongs to both the cosmos and
the microworld simultaneously.
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A man is made up of about 10^29 atoms.
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A man stands midway between the masses of atoms and stars.
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Only intelligent people know what to ignore.
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Our telescopes observe 10^78 atoms(observable universe).
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Local (called ‘biological’) schemed (called ‘free willed’) actions are actually disguised (genetically-cogged in DNA or chemically-cogged in brain) past (illusorily causal) influences embedded within global (called ‘cosmic’) indeterminism (called ‘Heisenberg’s uncertainty’ ).

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Only in the largest possible (cosmic) context, we can actually know what or why we are.

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Physics relates the planckian smallness (within 10^-44 seconds or 10^-35 meters) to cosmic vastness( 46.5 billion light-years inflated plus dark-energetic radius in 13.8 billion Years ).
……………………………………..

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We know up to the first fraction of a second after the Big Bang.

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Six discretely measured (not theoretically derived ) fundamental constants of physics maintain our existence. So our existence is no less suspenseful than a mystery movie.

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Our telescopes can see a jet of plasma shooting from the central blackhole of Messier 87 galaxy ( 55 million light-years from Earth) due to the ray’s huge length(about 6000 light years).
…………………………………………

Almost all galaxies have a central black hole that periodically draws in stars and gas clouds.

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Falling gas swirls and heats up in massive black holes. Magnetic fields focus some of it into jets of hot plasma. Such outflows of energy from central or massive black holes stop or start the star-formation throughout galaxies.

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According to Einstein’s special theory of relativity, no’thing’ but only ‘space’ can move(actually expand) faster than light. Yet an energy beam from galaxy M87 inexplicably(at least still) moves five times the speed of light.
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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..……………………………………………………………………………………
Sexual traits are energetically costly.
Male primates’ showy sexual ornaments such as manes, beards, fleshy swellings, and colorful skin patches lead to small testes that can’t swamp the sperm of others. So evolution maintains a trade-off between ‘body’ and ‘testicle’.

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We have more microbial cells living inside our bodies than human cells.

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Our body literally cannot break down certain types of plant fibers without an assist from the bacteria in our gut.
…………………………………………
Probiotic pills contain ideal combinations of bacteria.
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Our bodies are the best technology we’ve ever utilized.

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We’re all made up of little atomic elements.

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Somehow, here on Earth, some atomic elements have come together to make plants and animals.
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We still don’t understand how a living cell works.

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The human body consists of 39 trillion of autonomously working units(cells).

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A strand of all the DNA (7feet per cell) inside a person is 10 billion miles, enough to stretch to Pluto.

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Living cells in our body work without any command from some command center.

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Everything that happens within a man is just chemical reactions and chemical reactions are just molecular jostlings.
……………………………………..

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Our brain is about 80 percent water.

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

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Language is the most powerful survival tool we have ever invented. There’s no limit to it’s logical subtlety with its being more and more straightforward, objective and penetrating. Factual memes can easily replace fictional ones (mind viruses) in such linguistic haven. After all, memes build  the very ‘model of reality’ as a reliable guide to our ‘enterprise to explore the vistas of existence’ called ‘life’.

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A language can reveal how the human brain works.

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Metaphors help us think about the unthinkable.

…………………………………………
A cognitive philosopher like Steven Pinker wonders what the meaning of ‘is’ is.

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Though physical concepts like matter, energy, motion, space or time are well-embeded into language, such conceptual roots are deeper than language itself to absorb sustenance from external world and to help the tree of knowledge (or reality itself?) grow (or just manifest?).

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Every ‘life form’ invents a particular language as a survival tool to grasp reality with the help of external things like sound or light or water or radio waves (ET?).

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A human language ascribes meaning to sound.

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According to Stevem Pinker, a language might be a window into human nature.

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Words are just gibberish without semantics.

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It’s foolishly arrogant to use epithets like ‘mere’ or ‘just a matter of’ before semantics.

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A language is a tool to represent reality in our heads.
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Semantics represents meaning ( the relation of words to reality).

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Albert Einstein imagined ‘time’ as a fourth dimension in a seamless hyperspace.

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An event is a stretch of time.

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Conceptual semantics is independent of linguistic semantics.

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Even before Einstein, space and time were used interchangeably in metaphors.
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Concepts are doughs that we keep on kneading in mental space to give them shapes of our needs.
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When zebra finches( Australian weaverbird with markings like a zebra’s) pair off with mates of their own choosing, rate of monogamy and parental care rise up. As a result, their  eggs are more likely to be fertilized, perpetuating their genes through their thriving offspring.Thus, evolution permits choosiness , a costly waste of time and energy.

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There is a higher level of infidelity in Australian weaverbirds from non-chosen (arranged or forced marriage) pairs – interestingly females roam less than male birds.

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Our relations should be emotionally glued. Humans are not logical spreadsheets.
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Logical thinking tells us how something works, emotional thinking determines its value.
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The decisions of our leaders should be made with rationality instead of emotions.
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Life’s a longing for unconditional love.
The things that make people organically happy is the deep relationships of life- the losing of self-sufficiency and enjoying dependence on others.
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Happiness is the ability to enjoy suffering for serving society.
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Pain that is not transformed into joy gets transmitted to initiate social changes.

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“Society changes when a small group of people find a better way to live, and the rest of us copy them.”
-David Brooks
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Diabetes, a genetically evolved survival mechanism to resist freezing and brain-starvation during the last ice age, is now a health care problem.

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Reality is a trans-subjective construction, to the extent that it evolves with the instrumental data of LHC ,NASA or ISRO. Even a single empirical fact can ruin the most beautiful scientific theory.

………………………………………… Quantum world is different from classical one to the extent that no mathematical formalism permits the rigorous passage from one world to another.

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Though objects in mathematical twistor space (totality of light rays in space-time ) represent objects and events in our universe, its smoothness doesn’t allow any quantum discreteness.

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…………………………………………

Our temporary solid(four dimensional) universe (basically a quantum fluctuation) amounts to be a projection from an eternal, geometric point(zero dimensional).

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We might be the product of design, coincidence, multiverse or evolution.

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Some particular properties of the universe keep up our very existence as living, conscious beings.

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A man is an arrangement of dust on one small planet out of billions of trillions in  a universe, which might again be one of many universes.

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Only a thinking man  gives  meaning to an otherwise nonexistent universe.

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No ‘right now across the universe’  exists.
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“Everything we do in science is conditioned by the way we look at the world and the way we look at the world is necessarily limited.”

-Marcelo Gleiser, a theoretical physicist

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We can never look at the universe from the “outside.”

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HUP represents the most fundamental initial ‘imperative’ for the universe to exist.
…………………………………………

The second law of thermodynamics represents the most fundamental initial ‘imperative’ for us to struggle for existence.


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Parity (mirror transformation) is the change in the algebraic sign of the coordinate system.

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The wavefunctions representing quantum particles behave in different ways upon parity transformation.

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The parity (mirror) transformation changes a right-handed coordinate system into a left-handed one or vice versa.

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Since two operations of the parity(mirror) transformation restores the coordinate system to its original state, nature should be oblivious to whether the coordinate system was right-handed or left-handed. Believe it or not, nature is not that simple. Some times somehow it routinely  remembers  a particle’s particular parity.

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The electromagnetic and strong interactions show mirror symmetry i.e.  invariance under the parity transformation.

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Even if a coin is tossed identically every time, whichever side wins  initially has a slightly greater chance of winning averagely. So nature is not so simply symmetrical.

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Quantum Bayesianism or QBism is a radically subjectivist interpretation of quantum to classical transition.
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Zurek’s quantum Darwinism stands in between two extremes-‘many worlds’ interpretation and the QBism.

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When the universe was born, there wasn’t any carbon (and thereby carbon based life) until  the first stars forged it from lighter elements. So life emerged from a nonliving universe.

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Scientists who are betting their time, effort and career status to discover a natural explanation for the origin of life, are gradually winning.

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Betting on natural explanations gets  technologically fruitful and intellectually  blissful because it reveals useful physical and biological rules.

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Living things aren’t made of a different substance from inanimate things.

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The basic elements of chemistry are the same in organisms as in the earth’s crust and atmosphere.

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Many complex organic molecules associated with life are often found in asteroids, comets and deep space.
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Isn’t it amazing to know that a sort of cell membrane could form spontaneously from abiotic fatty acids and amino acids?

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Proteins (polymers of amino acids) are nitrogenous organic constituents of living cells.

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Abiotic membrane formation may help assemble   proteins(still considered  exclusively biotic) – from smaller building blocks.

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A protein’s biological function depends on its three-dimensional folded structures.

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See

……………………………………..We ‘see’ electro-chemical changes.

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The brain’s visual system gets very little inputs from the world itself. Much of what we “see” comes from dataprocessing.
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We need mathematics to explain ‘vision’.
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Staring at a car engine was not enough to discover the laws of thermodynamics. We needed physics and mathematics.
……………………………………..

“The job of the theorist, as I see it, is we take these facts and put them together in a coherent picture. Experimentalists can’t tell you what makes something work.”
-Lai-Sang Young
……………………………….
Neurons in the visual cortex interact to detect the edges of objects and changes in contrast.

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The eye, as a lens, receives light and projects a copy of our visual field onto the retina in the back of the eye. The retina is connected to the brain’s visual cortex in the back of the head.
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“A living man can be enslaved and reduced to the historic condition of an object. But if he dies in refusing to be enslaved, he reaffirms the existence of another kind of human nature which refuses to be classified as an object.”

-Albert Camus

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“Kites rise highest against the wind, not with it.” -Winston Churchill

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Ray Kurzweil (inventor of scanner) loves to predict about transhumanism, life extension technologies ,vertical farming, robots and AI.
……………………………………..

The future of food is vertical i.e. growing produce in nutrient-rich stacked trays or racks.

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As populations rise, agricultural land shrinks.
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Traanshumanism is the idea that humans will become hybrid machines soon.
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Nanobots will soon live in our blood-stream and do everything from scanning for a disease to transmitting our thoughts to a wireless cloud.

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Polchinski rejected the dualistic complementarity by saying that in-falling observers would get burnt up by a literal firewall at the event horizon.

…………………………………………

The firewall paradox is a conflict between three fundamental postulates- equivalence principle, unitarity and locality. To resolve the paradox, one of them must be abandoned.

…………………………………………

Since there’s no difference between acceleration due to gravity and the acceleration of a rocket, we shouldn’t feel anything amiss when we cross a black hole horizon. This is the equivalence principle in Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

…………………………………………

Unitarity demands that information cannot be destroyed.

…………………………………………

Locality means that events happening at a particular point in space can only influence nearby points.

…………………………………………

Locality implies that the laws of physics  hold far away from a black hole, even if they break down at  the singularity or at the event horizon.
…………………………………………
One solution to resolve firewall paradox is to have the equivalence principle break down at the event horizon, thereby giving rise to a firewall.

…………………………………………

Samir Mathur’s  “fuzzball conjecture” resolves the paradox by declaring that there is no event horizon (hence no information loss) but a ball of strings emitting heat in the form of Hawking radiation.

…………………………………………
Hawking himself believed that information temporarily confined behind event horizon, eventually escapes in an unusable form.

…………………………………………

According to Leonard Susskind and Juan Maldacena, quantum entanglements create invisible microscopic wormholes connecting the particles still inside the hole to particles that escaped long ago. Both Hawking radiation and information loss are in line with such entangled/wormholed  links.

…………………………………………

Since mass and energy bend the fabric of space-time, a certain configuration of matter and energy allows a tunnel, a shortcut between two distant parts of the universe.

…………………………………………

We need negative mass to cancel the destabilizing effects of regular mass trying to traverse a  wormhole. We still don’t know whether matter with negative mass exist or not.

…………………………………………

To build a traversible wormhole we  need an entrance (black hole) and an exit (white hole). We still don’t know whether white holes exist or not.

…………………………………………

According to mathematics, a charged black hole(though rare) has a stretched singularity bridged to another oppositely charged black hole.If we thread the wormhole with a cosmic string, the distant ends of the cosmic string act like two opposing tug-of-war teams, holding back charged black holes.

…………………………………………

Many defects(cracks) arise   when ice freezes. Cosmic strings (no wider than a proton but with a single inch of their length outweighing Mount Everest) are defects in the fabric of space-time during the first fractions of a second after the Big Bang.

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

…………………………………………

 

Though a black hole’s immense gravity pulls in surrounding material, some particles can  get catapulted away. These high-energy particles  heat gigantic bubbles of gas and create shock waves that compress cool gas sparking the births of stars  across multiple galaxies.

…………………………………………

 

Polchinski rejected the dualistic complementarity by saying that in-falling observers would get burnt up by a literal firewall at the event horizon.

…………………………………………

The firewall paradox is a conflict between three fundamental postulates- equivalence principle, unitarity and locality. To resolve the paradox, one of them must be abandoned.

…………………………………………

 

Since there’s no difference between acceleration due to gravity and the acceleration of a rocket, we shouldn’t feel anything amiss when we cross a black hole horizon. This is the equivalence principle in Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

…………………………………………

Unitarity demands that information cannot be destroyed.

…………………………………………

Locality means that events happening at a particular point in space can only influence nearby points.

…………………………………………

Locality implies that the laws of physics  hold far away from a black hole, even if they break down at  the singularity or at the event horizon.
…………………………………………
One solution to resolve firewall paradox is to have the equivalence principle break down at the event horizon, thereby giving rise to a firewall.

…………………………………………

Samir Mathur’s  “fuzzball conjecture” resolves the paradox by declaring that there is no event horizon (hence no information loss) but a ball of strings emitting heat in the form of Hawking radiation.

…………………………………………
Hawking himself believed that information temporarily confined behind event horizon, eventually escapes in an unusable form.

…………………………………………

According to Leonard Susskind and Juan Maldacena, quantum entanglements create invisible microscopic wormholes connecting the particles still inside the hole to particles that escaped long ago. Both Hawking radiation and information loss are in line with such entangled/wormholed  links.

…………………………………………

Black holes are so powerful wells of gravity that absolutely nothing, including light, can escape their pull.
……………………………………..
We still don’t know what happens to an object once it is pulled into a black hole.
……………………………………..
Perhaps a black hole’s intense gravity crushes a falling object into nothingness.
……………………………………..
Perhaps a black hole spits a falling object out in some remote part of the universe. Such black holes might act like wormholes between two points in time and space making ‘intergalactic space-travel’ or ‘time-travel’ possible.
……………………………………..

……………………………………..

Juan Maldacena, Alexey Milekhin and Fedor Popov have constructed a traversable wormhole solution in four dimensions where a theoretical magnetic charge keep two rotating black holes apart until the electromagnetic radiation causes them to lose energy to merge with each other.Such a wormhole with no exotic matter equates to two quantum-entangled black holes.
……………………………………..
Maldacena’s wormhole balances classical and quantum effects.
……………………………………..

Maldacena’s wormhole has a non-trivial spacetime topology forbidden in the classical theory.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Our universe is full of so many secrets that we might never think and imagine it completely.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

About 7.5 million black holes are travelling at about 70 kilometers per second after being born, ejected and kicked by  supernova explosions in our Milky Way  galaxy.

…………………………………………

A blackhole’s velocity tells us if it was  born with a supernova explosion, or with a burnt out collapsed star.

…………………………………………

When a massive star collapses upon itself to explode into a supernova, a black hole might be formed.

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Existence is all beauty!

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“By other men’s labours we are led to the sight of things most beautiful that have been wrested from darkness and brought into light; from no age are we shut out, we have access to all ages, and if it is our wish, by greatness of mind, to pass beyond the narrow limits of human weakness, there is a great stretch of time through which we may roam. We may argue with Socrates, we may doubt  with Carneades, find peace with Epicurus, overcome human nature with the Stoics, exceed it with the Cynics. Since Nature allows us to enter into fellowship with every age, why should we not turn from this paltry and fleeting span of time and surrender ourselves with all our soul to the past, which is boundless, which is eternal, which we share with our betters?”

-Seneca

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“She is not a beautiful woman whose ankle or arm is praised, but she whose general appearance makes you forget to admire her single attributes.”

-Seneca

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Being a nobody allows us to feel, appreciate and enjoy the sublime.

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Edmund Burke separated aesthetic  experiences into “the beautiful” and “the sublime.”

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While the  “the beautiful” attracts and pleases, “the sublime” overwhelms, engulfs and  makes us feel small.

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When we are in awe at the sight of a sky-kissing temple or mountain, we experience “the sublime”- a heightened sense of existence beyond comfort and normalcy.

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Only by  giving up a part of ourselves,we can enjoy the sublime.

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Only as inferior we can  see something  superior.

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Ecstasy is the taste of vulnerability.

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Memetic superiority complex leads to a kind of paralysis that steals the potential of experiencing “the sublime”.

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The bare and mere existence of the Tegmarkian mathematical structure associated with colors, geometry,  topology, complexity or symmetries of a beautiful thing might represent an apparently probabilistic specific  by-product of some objective pointer states (quantum Darwinism), but ‘the meme of beauty’-the tip of the iceberg  can emerge only in the presence of the required plugin in the beholder’s eye, a product of billion years’ natural selection (genetic Darwinism)!

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“A step lower and strangeness creeps in……. At the heart of all beauty lies something inhuman, and these hills, the softness of the sky, the outline of these trees at this very minute lose the illusory meaning with which we had clothed them, henceforth more remote than a lost paradise. The primitive hostility of the world rises up to face us across millenia.”
-Albert Camus

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“Man cannot do without beauty, and this is what our era pretends to want to disregard”.

-Albert Camus

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Though life is a “victimized product” of evolution, life has found many abstract ( truth-beauty-goodness or liberty-equality-fraternity ) and physical (fire, wheel, electricity) tools to yoke evolution. Such tools are naturally selected since they serve as both individually passionate recreations and evolutionarily indifferent variations.
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Feelings are biochemical algorithms honed through millions of years of evolution to quickly calculate probabilities of survival and reproduction.
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Feelings of sexual attraction arise when other biochemical algorithms calculate that a nearby individual offers a high probability of successful mating, social bonding, or some other coveted goal.
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Moral feelings such as outrage, guilt or forgiveness derive from neural mechanisms that evolved to enable group cooperation.
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Feelings are originally evolutionary rationality.
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Our feeling was the best method in the universe for deciding what to study, who to marry, and which party to vote for. Soon computer algorithms could give you better counsel than human feelings.
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The most important medical decisions rely on the calculations of computers which understand our bodies much better than we do.
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The world might not be a playground of autonomous individuals struggling to make the right choices.
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The universe is a flow of data.
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Organisms are little more than biochemical algorithms.
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Humanity’s cosmic vocation is to create an all-encompassing data-processing system – and then merge into it.
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We are tiny chips inside a giant data-processing system absorbing and processing countless data bits through emails, tweets and articles.
Chips don’t have time to find out where they fit into the great scheme of things, because they are too busy answering all these emails.
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“We ascribe beauty to that which is simple; which has no superfluous parts; which exactly answers its end; which stands related to all things; which is the mean of many extremes.”

– Ralph Waldo Emerson

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Symmetry is similarity or changelessness along space or time.

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Momentum conservation is the spatial symmetry and energy conservation is the temporal symmetry.
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Beauty (i.e. a symmetrical pattern) might objectively originate from symmetric anatomy of reality.Even Zurek’s ‘fundamentally spawned but environmentally selected’ pointer states might take on a sort of objective beauty. Unlike worms, human-survival demanded an optical pattern-recognition circuitry enabling us to enjoy patterns ( i.e. beauty).
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Natural selection utilizes and strengthens subjective aspects of ‘beauty’ to attract opposite sexes directly (peacock’s tail, large boobs) or indirectly(flowers) to give the suitor a better shot at mating and passing on his genes.
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Bees see many eyecatching colours and patterns invisible to us.
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A male flame bowerbird not only builds a bower like structure but also decorate it with colorful objects, flowers, berries, snail shells , bottle caps, etc. The bird’s courtship — the costumes, dance and sculpture blends many different art forms to stimulate all the senses of female bowerbird who copulates with him for just two or three seconds.

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Darwin’s natural selection allows only the fittest to exist. But fitness has two components -survival and mating. An individual should both survive and mate to get their genes into the next generation.

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Darwin’s natural selection might allow a maladaptive organ like the peacock’s tail for reproductive success.

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Fitness has two components -survival and mating. An individual should both survive and mate to get their genes into the next generation.

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According to ornithologist Richard Prum, sexual selection might neglect survival just to keep mates pleasing to each other. Local and instant demands can beat future and global demands.
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Peahen’s mere personal whim influences evolution to increase the beauty of peacock’s tail. We can control our whims to secure a future of our choice.
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“The sight of a feather in a peacock’s tail, whenever I gaze at it, makes me sick!” – Charles Darwin
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According to Yale ornithologist Richard O. Prum, objective beauty directs evolution.

…………………………………………Though life is a “victimized product” of evolution, life has found many abstract ( truth, beauty or goodness ) and physical (fire, wheel, electricity) tools to yoke evolution.
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The more beautiful male organisms are, the more healthy genes they carry.
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A beautiful outward appearance means the less risk of catching sexually transmitted viruses, more efficient metabolic process, or immune function.
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“It was interesting how beauty was evolved not for any specific gene trait, gene strength, or gene population but rather the strength of female choosing what was beautiful was perpetrated to this evolutional beauty.”
Richard O. Prum
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Truth, goodness and beauty might not be subjective. They often objectively transform our lives.

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Truth, goodness and beauty are the foundations on which a life worth living is built.

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“A Thing Of Beauty Is a Joy For Ever.”
Keats

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Natural selection can’t explain animal consciousness and nuances of a sultry desire.

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Perhaps displays work because organisms appreciate beauty objectively for its own sake.
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“Life is a toy without any instructions on it. We are destined to wonder how to play with it.”
NKG
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An animal’s fat throughout its body functions as energy storage and insulation from cold.
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A desert-dwelling camel accumulates fat in a single place ( hump) to avoid overheating.
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Women’s breasts initially functioned like camel’s humps. Later, men’s eyes discovered (or ascribed) objective ( due to symmetry? ) beauty in alluring mounds of fat.
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MEASUREMENT AND UNIT

Select the blanks for answers:-
=> Any measurable or quantifiable property of the physical world is called a physical quantity.
=>Some physical quantities are length, mass, time, temperature, distance, etc.
=>Some unmeasurable physical properties are anger, love ,greed, hatred, etc.
=> Two types of physical quantities are there-Scalars and vectors.
=> Scalars are the physical quantities that are represented by their magnitude only and hence cannot be resolved into components .
=>Examples of scalar quantities include mass, time, length, energy, temperature, etc.
=>A vector is a physical quantity having a magnitude resolvable into multipath components and hence requires direction to be represented.
=> Examples of vectors include force, velocity, acceleration, etc. => Force needs to be defined in terms of magnitude in N and also the direction in which it acts.
=> Force needs to be defined in terms of magnitude in N and also the direction in which it acts.
=>Velocity is expressed in ms-1 and needs a direction in which the body is travelling.
=> The vector → Q can be subtracted from vector → P if it has a direction opposite to → P . The magnitude of the resultant vector will be equal to the difference of magnitudes of the subtracting vectors and the direction will be that of the greater vector.
=> Symbolically, a vector quantity is expressed as a line segment with an arrow. The length of the line segment represents the magnitude of the vector quantity whereas the arrow head and orientation of the line segment gives its direction.
=> A vector having a zero magnitude and arbitrary direction is called a null vector.
=> The result of the sum of a vector and its negative vector is always a null vector. A+ (-A) =0
=> Measurement of any physical quantity involves comparison with a certain basic, arbitrarily chosen, internationally accepted reference standard. This is called unit.
=> The result of a measurement of a physical quantity is expressed by a number (or numerical measure) accompanied by a unit.
=> Although the number of physical quantities appears to be very large, we need only a limited number of units for expressing all the physical quantities, since they are inter- related with one another. Besides , some physical quantities are arbitrarily regarded fundamental and can be used to form most other derived quantities.
=>The units for the fundamental or base quantities are called fundamental or base units. => The units of most physical quantities can be expressed as combinations of the base units. Such units obtained for the derived quantities are called derived units.
=>Physical quantities are either “scalar” or “vector” .
=>Vector quantities are important in the study of motion.
=> Some examples of vector quantities include force, velocity, acceleration, displacement, and momentum.
=>A quantity is a vector if it has a direction associated with it.
=>The speed is just the magnitude of the velocity in a certain direction. So speed is a scalar quantity, but velocity is a vector .
=>If a car has a velocity of 40 mph east, it has a speed of 40 mph.
=>A vector is drawn as an arrow with a head and a tail. The magnitude of the vector is often described by the length of the arrow. The arrow points in the direction of the vector. =>Vectors are generally written as boldface letters. They can also be written with an arrow over the top of the letter.
=>”The football player was running 12 miles an hour towards the end zone.”-
This is a vector because it represents a magnitude (12 mph) and a direction (towards the end zone). This vector represents the velocity of the football player. = “The volume of that box at the west side of the house is 12 cubic feet”. –
This is a scalar. The location of the box has nothing to do with the direction of the volume which has a magnitude of 12 cubic feet.
=> “ The temperature of the room was 15 degrees Celsius.” – This is a scalar, there is no direction.
=> “ The vehicle accelerated north at a rate of 4 meters per second squared.” –
This is a vector as it has both direction and magnitude. We also know that acceleration is a vector quantity.
=>Unit vectors are vectors with a magnitude of 1.
=>Unit vectors are used to define direction.
=>The credit for inventing vectors goes to Irish physicist William Rowan Hamilton.
=>Vectors can be defined in two dimensional or three dimensional space.
=>Three different systems of units for measurement -the CGS, the FPS (or British) system and the MKS system were in use extensively till recently.
=> In CGS system, the base units for length, mass and time were centimetre, gram and second respectively.
=>In FPS system , the base units for length, mass and time were foot, pound and second respectively.
=>In MKS system , the base units for length, mass and time were metre, kilogram and second respectively.
=>The system of units which is at present internationally accepted for measurement is the Système Internationale d’ Unites (French for International System of Units), abbreviated as SI.
=>In SI, there are seven base units.
=> Seven base units of the SI : metre (length), kilogram (mass), second (time), ampere (unit of electricity), kelvin (temperature), mole (amount of substance) and candela (light intensity).
=> Mnemonic for Seven base units of the SI = mksakmc
=>There is no physical quantity which has dimensions but no units. =Units are product of dimensional analysis.
=Units are product of dimensional analysis.
=> Besides the seven base units, there are two more units for two dimensionless physical quantities- plane angle and solid angle.
=>Plane angle is the ratio of length of arc to the radius.
=>The unit for plane angle is radian with the symbol rad .
=>The unit for the solid angle is steradian with the symbol sr. =>Both radian and steradian are dimensionless.
=>Both radian and steradian are dimensionless.
=>Both radian and steradian are dimensionless.
=>The definitions of base units are revised to keep up with the progress of the measuring techniques.
=> The metre (m) is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.
=> The kilogram (kg) is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram (a platinum-iridium alloy cylinder) kept at international Bureau of Weights and Measures, at Sevres, near Paris, France.
=>The second(s) is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. => The ampere(A) is that constant current which, if maintained in current two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 metre apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2×10^–7 newton per metre of length.
=> The kelvin (K) is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic dynamic temperature of the triple point of water.
=> The mole (mol) is the amount of substance of a system, which contains substance as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon – 12.
=> The candela (cd) is the luminous intensity, in a given intensity direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540×10^12 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian.
=>Some units like mole are retained for general use (Though outside SI).
=> When mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified. These entities may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles or specified groups of such particles.
=> A metre scale is used for lengths from 10^–3m to 10^2 m.
=>A vernier callipers is used for lengths to an accuracy of 10^–4 m.
=>A screw gauge and a spherometer can be used to measure lengths as less as to 10 ^–5m.
=>To measure lengths smaller than 10 –5m, we make use of some special indirect methods. => Large distances such as the distance of a planet or a star from the earth cannot be measured directly with a metre scale. An important method in such cases is the parallax method.
=>The parallax is the apparent displacement of an object as seen from two different points that are not on a line with the object.
=> If we look at a fixed object through a single eye while closing the other , with the change of eye the position of the object against some specific point on the background seems to change.This is a familiar example of parallax.
=>In parallax, the distance between the two points of observation is called the basis.
=In the simplest parallax example, the basis is the distance between the eyes.
=> To measure the distance D of a far away planet S by the parallax method, we observe it from two different positions (observatories) A and B on the Earth, separated by distance AB . We measure the angle between the two directions along which the planet is viewed at these two points.
=> To measure a very small size like that of a molecule (10^–8 m to 10^–10 m), we have to adopt special methods.
=> For visible light the range of wavelengths is from about 4000 Å to 7000 Å.
=>1 angstrom = 1 Å = 10^-10 m. =>As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a higher resolving power than light microscopes and can reveal the structure of smaller objects.
=>As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a higher resolving power than light microscopes and can reveal the structure of smaller objects.
=>As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a higher resolving power than light microscopes and can reveal the structure of smaller objects.
=>The sizes of the objects we come across in the universe vary from the size of the order of 10^–14 m of the tiny nucleus of an atom to the size of the order of 10^26 m of the extent of the observable universe. =>1 fermi = 1 f = 10^–15 m
=>1 angstrom = 1 Å = 10^–10 m
=> 1 astronomical unit = 1 AU (average distance of the Sun from the Earth) = 1.496 × 10^11 m
=> 1 light year = 1 ly= 9.46 × 10^15 m (distance that light travels with velocity of 3 × 10^8 m s–1 in 1 year)
=>Parsec is the distance at which average radius of earth’s orbit subtends an angle of 1 arc.
=>The parsec equals 3.26 light-years.
=>1 astronomical unit = 1.581 × 10-5 light-years.
=>The prefixes are used in very small as well as very large quantity.
=>Physics deals with matter, energy and their interaction.
=A microgram or microgramme (μg) is equal to one millionth (1×10^−6) of a gram.
=A microgram or microgramme (μg) is equal to one thousandth of a milligram. [{(µg comes from the Greek letter mu, where µ means “small”.)}] => 32 × 10^-10 kg =3.2 µg.
=>The quantities 123.0,12.30,1.230, 2.000 and .2000 all contain 4 significant figures.The first three numbers are known with certainty and the final number is always taken as significant.
=> A zero used to fix a decimal point is never significant.
=>A trailing zero to “count” as significant, must be followed by a decimal.
=>Writing just “5000” would give us only one significant figure i.e. 5.
=>The quantities 0.456, 0.0456 , 0.00456 and 45600 all contain 3 significant figures.All exponential zeros are insignificant. =>0.000000001 has only one significant figure; the remaining zeros were used to fix the decimal point.
=>Significant figures in 0.02020=5.
=>Significant figures in 70.010=5
=>Significant figures in 0.03000=4
=>As an exponential number 0.03000 can be represented as 3.000 x 10^-2.
=>Zeros within a number are always significant.
=>The quantities 609, 60.9, 6.09 and 0.609 all contain 3 significant figures since the 0 between the 6 and 9 is significant. The number 609 means that the true value rests somewhere between 608 and 610, thus, the zero is known with certainty and is significant.
=> The number of significant digits in 0.073 =2.
=>Geophysics deals with the study of internal structure of earth.
=> A physical balance is a modified beam balance to measure small masses more accurately by comparison.
=>Amount of a substance in terms of numbers is measured in mole.
=>While measuring length the eye must be kept above the scale.
=>A screw guage measures the diameter of a wire or the thickness of a metal sheet. =>The study of the nature of heat, modes of transfer and effects of heat is studied under the branch named as heat .
=>The number 0.0000748 in scientific notation is 7.48 * 10^ -5.
=>Non-zero digits are always significant .
=> The quantities on the basis of which other quantities are expressed are called base quantities .
=>Plasma physics deals with the production and properties of the ionic state of matter .
=>A stop watch measures the time interval of an event .
=> The amount of substance is a base quantity.
=>A spring scale can not measure mass, only weight.
=> Object’s mass when measured with the same beam balance and standard mass is the same everywhere.
=> Object’s weight even when measured with the same spring scale varies with gravity.
=> A weighing scale actually measures the value of Normal Reactions acting on it. => N (Normal Reaction) =mg.
=> The weighing scales are measured in ‘KG’ instead of ’N’ (Newton) because the calibration scale is set to 1: 9.81 ratio.
=> 981 N force on spring scale is displayed as 100 kg ,the mass part only.
=> g= 9.81 N/m2 on the earth. =>Spring scale shows different value of mass on another planet.
But a two-pan balance gives the same reading.
=> Weighing Scales actually output weight depending on the force exerted on it, but displays it as mass (just by dividing it by a constant=9.8).
=> We need to multiply the displayed value on a spring scale by 9.8 to calculate the actual Weight in SI units.
=>10kg*9.81m/s2=98.1N is shown as 10 kg by a spring scale.
=> In a gravityless environment, a weighing scale is useless to measure mass.
=> In a gravityless environment, we use an inertial balance. For a given stiffness (spring constant) of the spring; the frequency of vibration of the spring calculates the mass of a body.
=> Unlike a spring scale ,a beam balance directly measures mass.
=> A spring scale measures weight by reporting the distance that a spring deflects ( Hooke’s law) due to a load under gravity.
=>The deflection is proportional to the force (weight) which in turn is proportional to the mass.
=> Smallest measurement an electronic balance can take is 1/1000 g = 0.001 g .
=> A measuring cylinder is a graduated glass cylinder marked in millilitres.
=> The science that deals with the study of non-living things is known as physical science .
=>The least count of screw gauge is 0.01 mm.
=> A refrigerator is made on the principles of thermodynamics .
=>The distance of moon from earth is 3.84 * 10 8 m.
=> In screw gauge a thimble around its one end has 100 divisions.
=>One division of Vernier scale is of 0.9 mm .
=> If zero line of the vernier scale is on the right side of the zero of the main scale, then zero error will be positive .
=>Zeros used for spacing the decimal point are non-significant .
=>All the accurately known digits and the first doubtful digit in an expression are known as significant figures .
=> The final zeroes after decimal are significant.
=> The least count of physical balance is 0.01 g.
=>The study of fourth state of matter is called plasma physics.
=>An interval of 300µs is equal to 3 × 10 -4 s.
=> An instrument used to measure small lengths such as internal or external diameter or length of a cylinder, etc. is called vernier callipers.
=>The prefix for 4800000 W is 4800 kW.
=> In screw guage, the distance between consecutive threads on the spindle is 1 mm.
=> All physical quantities are measurable.
=> A worldwide system of measurements in which the the units of base quantities were introduced is called international system of units .
=>By converting 3 700 000 Watt into kilowatt, we get 3 700 kW .
=> The study of motion of objects, its causes and effects is called mechanics . => Harry claimed that the diameter of a wire is 1.042 using vernier callipers. Upto what extent he is right is 1.04 cm.
=> The words or letters added before a unit and stand for the multiples or sub-multiples of that unit are called prefixes.
=>10 vernier scale divisions coincide with 9 main scale divisions.
10 vsd=9 msd
1 vsd=.9 msd
LC= 1MSD-1VSD
LC=1MSD-.9MSD=.1MSD ( .1 mm).
=> The least count of Vernier calipers is 0.01 cm=0.1 mm.
=>The “seconds in a day” can be written in standard form as 8.64 × 10 5 s .
[{(A day,243 Earth days, on Venus lasts longer than a year, 225 Earth days.)}]
=>A digital wrapper is 4.5 cm long and 5.9 cm wide. Its area upto significant figures will be 26.55 cm².
=>Physical sciences were divided into 5 disciplines.
=>The smallest change a sensitive beam balance can record is 100 mg.
=> By using prefixes, we can write 335 × 10 -8 s as 3.35 µs .
=>When a standard is set for a quantity, then the standard quantity is called a unit .
=> The study of the internal structure of the Earth is known as geophysics.
=>A fundamental quantity belongs to a typical class, each of them having no dependence with other fundamental quantities.
=>The typical attribute that is common to a class of physical quantities is what is called their dimensionality.
=>A typical dimension represents
a typical class of physical quantities.
=>The dimension of a body means how it is relatable in terms of base quantities.
=> The dimension of a physical quantity is represented by the powers to which the fundamental quantities are raised.
=> The seven fundamental quantities are enclosed in square brackets [ ] to represent its dimensions.
=> The dimension of Length is described as [L].
=> The dimension of time is described as [T].
=> The dimension of mass is described as [M].
=> The dimension of electric current is described as [A].
=> The dimension of the amount of quantity can be described as [mol].
=> The dimension of temperature is [K].
=> The dimension of luminous intensity is [Cd].
=> The volume of a solid is the product of length, breadth and its height.
As volume is dependent on mass and time, the final dimension of volume will be [M]0[L]3[T]0

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Aristotle, the great categoriser, distinguished life from non-life mainly by the tendency of living things to be drawn towards a future goal.

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Since particles of matter follow physics not goals, the inner drive of organisms is not fundamental but  emergent from evolutionarily demanding arrangement of matter.

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Since particles of matter follow physics not goals, the inner drive of organisms demands a top-down explanation.

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Darwin knew that his theory of evolution explains how life got diverse  and not how it started in the first place. So he named his book ‘The Origin of Species’ instead of  “The Origin of Life.”

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We still need a new Darwin to write “The Origin of Life” or “The Origin of Matter”.

……………………………………..

“One might as well speculate on the origin of matter.”

-Charles Darwin

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Editing the genes of embryos will  change our species’ evolutionary trajectory.

…………………………………………

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Though gene-editting  can improve the human race, the strengths of our diversity might be lost.

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Gene-editting might violate the rights of already vulnerable populations.

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Humility is the acknowledgement of our ignorance. Gene-editting demands humility to ensure its risks are heeded.

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Gene-editting  demands altruism to ensure its benefits are equitably distributed.

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Darwinian evolution is an entropic phenomenon.


Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

Aristotle, the great categoriser, distinguished life from non-life mainly by the tendency of living things to be drawn towards a future goal.

……………………………………..

Since particles of matter follow physics not goals, the inner drive of organisms is not fundamental but  emergent from evolutionarily demanding arrangement of matter.

……………………………………..

 

Since particles of matter follow physics not goals, the inner drive of organisms demands a top-down explanation.

……………………………………..

Darwin knew that his theory of evolution explains how life got diverse  and not how it started in the first place. So he named his book ‘The Origin of Species’ instead of  “The Origin of Life.”

……………………………………..

We still need a new Darwin to write “The Origin of Life” or “The Origin of Matter”.

……………………………………..

“One might as well speculate on the origin of matter.”

-Charles Darwin

……………………………………..

“Our  search for an evolutionarily meaningful existence becomes an epic romance when we tap into the existential agency.”

-NABA KUMAR GARAI (https://wondernspeculate.org/)

…………………………………………

Nothing is ‘ARTIFICIAL’ in evolution. Even our androids, computers,  spacecrafts or robots are biological extensions evolving ‘NATURALLY’.

……………………………………..

When replication hosts  some existentially self-amplifying copying errors, it is called ‘evolution’.

…………………………………………

A replicator is anything that gets, directly or indirectly, copied.

…………………………………………

Survival of the fittest amounts to survival of the best replicating mechanism. It has nothing to do with strength, agility, longevity, happiness  or extraordinary intelligence. Even a shorter-lived replicator that is better at being copied become more abundant than a durable, long-lived one.

…………………………………………

Biological evolution is actually a contest between pieces of DNA to see which of them could make the most copies of themselves.

…………………………………………

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In Chinese dualistic cosmology, yin and yang -two opposite but complementary tendencies produce everything that comes into existence.

…………………………………………

Evolution is the creative and entropy is the destructive force of the universe. Yin and yang of existence!

…………………………………………

The study of evolution is the study of replication.

…………………………………………

A virus, whether genetic or memetic,  exists because a copying mechanism might not be equipped with a screening plugin.

…………………………………………

A virus is one of the mechanisms for copying and dispersing information in the universe.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

A virus is one of the universal replicators for copying and dispersing information in the universe.

…………………………………………

The human mind is the most advanced copying mechanism of all.

…………………………………………

The four variedly robust   characteristics of a replicator: penetration, copying, issuing instructions, and spreading.

…………………………………………

Human culture is best identified as a meme pool.

…………………………………………

We should put our meme pool to work for humanity’s best interests.

…………………………………………

Since our biological default plugin for understanding isn’t designed to understand what happens over millions or billions of years, Darwinism seems weird.

…………………………………………

Things or forms change. It is called entropy. By ‘evolution’, we just  make a distinction between the winners ( which continue to exist, grow, split and replicate), and the losers. When such a replicating machinery secures its existence by adapting to environmental feedbacks, we get something upon which we ascribe a special name called ‘life’.

…………………………………………

Asymmetries or things level out ( get simpler or symmetric) over time, like sand castles on a beach.

…………………………………………

Evolution is a scientific model of how things become more asymmetric and

complex; entropy describes how things become symmetric and simpler.

…………………………………………

Evolution is the opposite of entropy.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Replicators are medium-born. Medium proliferates them. But they will use any medium extending their circulation and reproduction. After finding a better medium  replicators quickly leave the old medium without any gratitude.

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A medium serves as the host for replicators.

…………………………………………
Replicators cannot survive without a host.

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A host/medium/container/transmitter  is quickly chosen by replicators whenever it is available and effective.

…………………………………………

A sort of memetic spell forces us to share posts on social media. This 21st century has already become a  digital meme pool. Internet users(directly or indirectly) serve as mere links in a chain of host media for the passage of memetic information. Too much automation might one day replace our species with artificially intelligent robots. Replication will continue as well, or even better.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Our instinctive virtues and vices are actually autonomous algorithms (mechanistically blind evolutionary plugins) that help us survive in brutally   indifferent Darwinian struggle.

…………………………………………

What is most radical about Dawkins’ theory is that it reduces existence to the level of mere media- as if things exist only to  facilitate the replication and passage of information.

…………………………………………

We needed Darwin to show us that life is the gift of mechanical evolution. We needed  Dawkins to tell us that neither individuals nor species but  replicators serve as the hot iron to bear the blind blows  of  evolutionary hammer.

…………………………………………

In Dawkins’s theory, very little difference exists between humans and machines, animals and ideologies, insects and internet memes— all are just containers of some replicators.

…………………………………………

In Dawkins’s theory, man is just one of many potential host media for transmission and reproduction of “content”.

…………………………………………

The genetic natural selection is a special case of a general ( universal) Darwinism with some replicator as a unit of natural selection.
…………………………………………
Where there is any natural selection, there is some replicator. If any occasional error in replications influences its own probability of replication, that particular ‘error’ gets selected as a mainstream or natural continuation.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Since Darwin’s theory of evolution is substrate-neutral, it universally applies to organic, inorganic and even cultural systems.

…………………………………………
Our visible cosmos itself seems to be an evolving system.
…………………………………………
Memetics is Universal Darwinism applied to human culture.
…………………………………………

According to James Gardner and Lee Smolin, the visible universe itself is a Darwinian adaptation.

…………………………………………

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Till now 99 percent earthly organisms have died childless.
…………………………………………
A man has billions of ancestor – from single cells to worms to fish to reptiles to mammals to primates.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………
A chemical feedback system has evolved into ‘life’.
…………………………………………


Biological phenomena belong to a  fundamental physical process called ‘evolution’.

…………………………………………

Biological phenomena evolved from physical feedback loops.

…………………………………………

Male genes with even slightly  aesthetic bent are often selected by female birds and animals.
…………………………………………

Quantum fluctuation => Cosmic Inhomogeneities => Gravitational collapse => Star => Heat => Photons  disequilibrium gradient =>Electron disequilibrium gradient  => Proton gradient => Growth  => Replication => Natural selection
…………………………………………
Darwinian evolution is an entropic phenomenon.


A many-particle system is driven away from equilibrium, or evolve towards the equilibrium due to an interaction with an environment.


Darwinian evolution is explained by the 2nd law of thermodynamics.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………


“I may not have been sure about what really did interest me, but I was absolutely sure about what didn’t.’

-Albert Camus

…………………………………………

An organism is lucky enough to belong to a logical process called ‘cosmos’.

Physical, chemical, and biological processes occur outside the thermodynamic equilibrium.

……………………………………..

Matter and energy are not things but physical quantities!

……………………………………..

Matter and energy are neither created nor destroyed, only transformed. It’s the first law of thermodynamics!

……………………………………..

In any transformation of energy, some part of the free energy gets too dispersed/bound to accomplish any work! It’s the second law of thermodynamics!

……………………………………..

Enormous amount of heat energy is contained/bound  in the world’s oceans and atmosphere!

……………………………………..

We can gather bound energy back together only at the cost of a greater expenditure of energy!

……………………………………..

The second law of thermodynamics is the only physical law of universal

content that describes, at least probabilistically/statistically, an irreversible process!

……………………………………..

The second law of thermodynamics had challenged the certainty of Newtonian mechanics before quantum mechanics!

……………………………………..

Darwinian evolution is an entropic phenomenon.

——————————–

The Second Law of Thermodynamics says that all complex things in a closed system like our universe will grow less complex, until everything is a cold soup of individual particles, unmoving. Time itself will effectively stop.
……………………………………..
The Universe is a closed system. There is no energy bleedover from or to other universes that might exist.
……………………………………..
The Universe is a simple system because it encompasses all that is.
……………………………………..
Energy enters and leaves the Earth all the time. Order can and does increase in such a local area. Complexity can arise from less complex things.
……………………………………..
Entropy is not a measure of randomness or disorder.
……………………………………..
The law of entropy is better read as “there is a high probability that entropy always increases”. It’s not physics, but probability that governs this.
……………………………………..
Entropy can decrease. It’s highly improbable but not impossible.
……………………………………..
The conservation of energy demands, that the speed of a thrown up ball must slow down as it gains height. When it loses height the speed increases. But alas! Some of the energy is given to the air molecules, but on it’s way back, the air molecules don’t give back the energy, so the situation is not really getting reversed.
……………………………………..
The conservation laws don’t tell why things change in a particular manner as time moves forward. It turns out that there is nothing special, it is just a game of probability.
……………………………………..
Due to probability, it’s more likely that coins starting with ‘all heads up’ after flipping becomes ‘some heads up and some heads down’ and the reverse (although allowed by the rules of physics) is highly unlikely (but not impossible).
……………………………………..
There is only one way to get the ‘all heads up’. Hence it is the lowest entropy state. There are 252 ways to get the ‘5 heads up and 5 tails up’ . It’s maximum entropy state.
……………………………………..
Say you have 100 trillion coins. After flipping them all, you will get about half a trillion H and half a trillion T. We might have a few 10’s of billion extra H, but overall it’s a tiny fraction and can be neglected. This explains why locally entropy could decrease, but globally it always increases.
……………………………………..
Entropy is not really about energy, it’s about no. of ways in which you can arrange something.
……………………………………..
More concentrated energy means lower entropy. More distributed means higher entropy. So concentrated energy tends to get more distributed over time. Living things exist because they are excellent at distributing energy of universe.
……………………………………..
Since our universe has grown, there is more room and hence more no. of ways to arrange the stuff. Hence the universe is growing in size and entropy.
……………………………………..
Since things are always changing in the higher entropy direction, we can distinguish between forward and reverse time.
……………………………………..
There might be changes happening locally .Only over all it’s pretty much half trillion H and half trillion T. However on a universal scale, there wouldn’t be any changes happening, and time would cease to exist.
……………………………………..
Entropy is how much energy in a system is unavailable for anything useful. Energy, on the other hand, is the ability to actualize changes to a system; the amount of energy in a system is the total amount of changes that can be made to it.
……………………………………..
The total amount of changes that can be made to a system (which is hypothetically infinite) is conserved; can’t increase, can’t decrease, etc. Entropy increases because all of that energy is becoming more and more unavailable for mechanical purposes.
……………………………………..
Thermodynamics envelopes Darwinian theory.
…………………………………………
The laws of thermodynamics can offer an explanation of biological evolution.

———————–
“Thermodynamics is the only physical theory of universal content which, within the framework of the applicability of its basic concepts, I am convinced will never be overthrown.”
– Albert Einstein

——————–
In mathematical and physical modelling, a hydrogen atom’s proton, a hydrogen atom’s electron and a planet are often treated each as an isolated system.
……………………………………..
The traditional  matter/mind or living/non-living  dichotomy is a false dichotomy. Even intentionality  can be understood as  complex constructions of simpler properties of nature such as self-organization and thermodynamic directionality.
…………………………………………
The second law of thermodynamics demands that for a closed system—like a gas in a box, or the universe as a whole—disorder must increase over time.
……………………………………..
The second law imposes an irreversibility on the behavior of large groups of particles, allowing us to play with words like “past,” “present,” and “future.”
……………………………………..

Organisms are open systems. They exchange both matter and energy with their surroundings.


……………………………………..

The earth is a closed system
that can exchange energy with it’s environment but not matter.
……………………………………..

A Thermometer is a Closed System.
The cardiovascular systems of humans are closed, meaning that the blood never leaves the network of blood vessels .
……………………………………..

Erwin Schrödinger recognized that living organisms, unlike a gas in a box, are open systems.
……………………………………..

Definitions help us  learn a new subject.

……………………………………..
A  system  is something  we identify or prepare in order to do experiments and make observations.
……………………………………..
Nothing is perfectly isolated from its surroundings.
……………………………………..

A system is the part of the universe we wish to study. The surroundings is  the rest of the universe.
……………………………………..

If a system is isolated, then nothing can enter or leave.
When only energy can be exchanged, the system is called closed.

When both matter and energy can be exchanged, the system is called open.

……………………………………..

Thermodynamic dissipation  provides a physical-chemical framework  for understanding the origin and evolution of life.


……………………………………..
Ilya Prigogine’s Non-linear Classical Irreversible Thermodynamics shows that “spontaneous” macroscopic organization  across space and time can occur within a system subjected to an external chemical potential.

……………………………………..

Macroscopic  “spontaneous” dissipative structuring is identical to entropy production.
……………………………………..

………………………………………

…………………………………………

In an equilibrium model, planets stay in their fixed orbits because of two equal and opposite forces: the velocity of their forward motion taking  them away from the sun, and force of gravity pulling them toward to the sun.

…………………………………………

A bathtub with its drain closed and its faucet shut off is in static equilibrium. When we unplug the drain and turn on the faucet so the same amount of water comes in and goes out, we see dynamic equilibrium at work.

…………………………………………

Complex adaptive systems have  many parts that continually modify their behavior as they respond to changes in their environment. Examples of complex adaptive systems include the human nervous system, political systems , social structures and even stock market.

…………………………………………

Newtonian system, of which equilibrium is one part, has been our model for how to think about the world for three hundred years. Complex adaptive systems might one day replace such old fashioned thinking.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Only disequilibrium exists.
…………………………………………
Physical, chemical, and biological processes occur outside the thermodynamic equilibrium.

—————————
A many-particle system is driven away from equilibrium, or evolve towards the equilibrium due to an interaction with an environment.

…………………………………………

“You should try to take the set of actions that are likely to prolong civilization, minimise the probability of a dark age, and reduce the length of a dark age if there is one.”
-Elon Musk
………………………………………..

Reality is not any particular existence.

…………………………………………
Life, a particular existence, can’t imprison reality’s entirety.
…………………………………………
The purpose of life decidedly amounts to inventing, if not discovering, the purpose of life.

…………………………………………

“My favorite philosopher is Douglas Adams.”

-Elon Musk
…………………………………………
Elon Musk, as an existentially-torn teenager, embraced Douglas Adams’ philosophy summed up in the line: “The universe is the answer; what are the questions?” Perhaps, we still don’t know actually what to ask.

…………………………………………

To ask better and better existential questions we have to eternally expand our collective intelligence.

…………………………………………

“If we expand the scope and scale of consciousness, then we are better able to understand what questions to ask. We’ll learn more, we’ll become more enlightened. And so we should try to do the things that expand the scope and scale of consciousness.Becoming a multi-planet species and ensuring that we have a sustainable climate on Earth, these are very important to that overarching philosophy.”

-Elon Musk

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Models of reality can be ‘reality’ Itself.

……………………………………..
Models might be what there actually is.
……………………………………..

Modern science sprouts from empirical commentaries on ancient philosophies.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

Elon Musk in his teens read “The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” as a helpful existential philosophy.
…………………………………………
“I guess when I was around 12 or 15…I had an existential crisis, and I was reading various books on trying to figure out the meaning of life and what does it all mean? It all seemed quite meaningless.”

-Elon Musk

…………………………………………

“If you can properly phrase the question, then the answer is the easy part.”

-Elon Musk

…………………………………………

“So, to the degree that we can better understand the universe, then we can better know what questions to ask, then whatever the question is that most approximates: What’s the meaning of life?”

-Elon Musk

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Elon Musk hopes to build a city on Mars that will be self-sustaining by the 2050s.

…………………………………………

“There is a pretty good chance we end up with a universal basic income, or something like that, due to automation.”

– Elon Musk
…………………………………………

Atoms become plants and people!

…………………………………………

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

 

……………………………………..

Schrödinger had intelligently speculated that life’s  information must be encoded in the specific arrangement of atoms in some  giant molecule, before Crick and Watson discovered DNA with four molecular alphabets( A, C, T and G) whose sequences encode life’s data.

……………………………………..

 

By a mathematical procedure scientists de-code  DNA i.e. learn the language of life.

 

……………………………………..

 

The molecular instructions encoded into DNA and the associated read-out and translation machinery resemble the operating system in a computer.

 

……………………………………..

Since  information is the reduction in uncertainty(head/tail) about the result of an observation (coin toss), quantum uncertainty inherent in quantum mechanics ( and not the result of human ignorance) might be the basic constituent  of nature. Such quantum uncertainty in its dualistic form of ‘information-processing’ might have spontaneously initiated both universe and life. It might be the most unsurprising fact of our existence!

 

……………………………………..

 

……………………………………..

Life is not a merely entropic phenomenon. The modules in the ‘wiring diagram’ of gene networks carry out complex computations in living cells to give us survival advantage in an unpredictable and fluctuating environment.  Signals are exchanged between cells, organisms and even ecosystems. Earth’s biosphere is actually a living World Wide Web of chemical network that stores digital information to serve its quantum purpose only at the level of  large organic molecules!

 

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

DNA is life’s hard drive. So life is an operating system. Organs are  default plugins with particular algorithms. The analogy actually goes far deeper since quantum uncertainty in its dualistic form of  ‘information-processing’ might have spontaneously initiated both universe and life. It might be the most unsurprising fact of our existence!

……………………………………..

Aristotle, the great categoriser, distinguished life from non-life mainly by the tendency of living things to be drawn towards a future goal.

……………………………………..

 

Since particles of matter follow physics not goals, the inner drive of organisms is not fundamental but  emergent from evolutionarily demanding arrangement of matter.

……………………………………..

 

Since particles of matter follow physics not goals, the inner drive of organisms demands a top-down explanation.

……………………………………..

Darwin knew that his theory of evolution explains how life got diverse  and not how it started in the first place. So he named his book ‘The Origin of Species’ instead of  “The Origin of Life.” 

……………………………………..

We still need a new Darwin to write “The Origin of Life” or “The Origin of Matter”.

……………………………………..

“One might as well speculate on the origin of matter.”

-Charles Darwin

……………………………………..

 

…………………………………………

Though viruses are biological entities, they are not organisms in the same sense that eukaryotes, archaeans, and bacteria are.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Some microbes relies on the radioactive decay of uranium to survive.
…………………………………………
Life might never have appeared on our planet without meteorites rich in rare elements like phosphorus.
…………………………………………

Chemolithotroph (self-growth by using rocks as an energy source through oxidation) in its subtlest form is called ‘life’.
…………………………………………

We  still don’t know what life is or how it began. 

……………………………………..

 

Since living organisms are made of normal matter, scientists are in the hunt for the missing link between matter and life.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

Schrödinger’s (quantum physicist) book “What Is Life?” with the subtitle “The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell” shows how fundamental laws in physics can explain the basic processes and properties of life.

……………………………………..

 

……………………………………..

Anything ‘infected’ with an innate purpose not merely exists but lives. Life is an infectious purpose.

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‘Life’ is synonymous with ‘purpose’. Grand purpose represents grand life.

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Single-cell microbe, Metallosphaera sedula (M. sedula), can thrive on meteorites.

…………………………………………


Organisms that consume inorganic(non-carbon) compounds for energy are called chemolithotrophs.

…………………………………………

Single-cell chemolithotrophs

(Metallosphaera sedula)  thriving on meteorites shows how exotic

chemistry can  facilitate the emergence of life in our universe. The fact is in line with both hydrothermal vent theory (that hadean redox-reaction has zigzagged into life) and panspermia (that life arrived on Earth from space) theory.

…………………………………………

Most astrobiologists  accept submarine hydrothermal vents as ‘the birthplace of  life itself’.

…………………………………………

Since protoplanetary disks can form around supermassive black holes in the nuclei of galaxies, thousands of planets can orbit around a black hole from 10 light-years away over several hundred million years.

…………………………………………

Extraterrestrial sugar found in space rocks implies that meteorites (small solid extraterrestrial bodies hitting the earth’s atmosphere) may have led to origin of life on Earth.

…………………………………………

Chemical reactions in asteroids ( numerous rocky and metal small  celestial objects between Mars and Jupiter) can make some of life’s ingredients.

…………………………………………

Meteorite bombardment on ancient Earth may have supplied life’s building blocks.

…………………………………………

Main building blocks of life( amino acids for making proteins, sugars and  nucleobases for making DNA/RNA) have been found in meteorites.

…………………………………………

RNA on the prebiotic Earth might have led to the origin of life. The fragile molecule Ribose that makes RNA (ribonucleic acid) is  found in carbon-rich   meteorites. The discovery is in line with the RNA world hypothesis.

…………………………………………

In modern organisms, RNA  ( a messenger molecule) copies  instructions from the DNA molecule and delivers them to molecular factories ( ribosomes) that read the RNA to build proteins.

…………………………………………

“It was a strange battle

where death and life struggled.

Life won the victory,

it has swallowed up death

Scripture has proclaimed

how one death ate the other,

death has become a mockery.”

-Martin Luther

…………………………………………

Saturn’s moon Enceladus has the same organic molecules that took on ‘life’  on earth.

……………………………………..

Saturn’s moon Enceladus has some kind of organic molecules which can play the role of precursor molecule of life.

……………………………………..

 

Saturn’s moon Enceladus  is the most reflective heavenly body in our solar system due to  it’s clean icy surface.

……………………………………..

Amino acids are the building blocks of life. According to Cassini’ last data, the ingredients of amino acids ( nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing organic compounds ) are abundant in the warm depths of Enceladus’ ocean’. Enceladus is one of those celestial bodies near us where the probability of finding life-like-chemical pathways is high.

 

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……………………………………..
Richard Dawkins’ “The Selfish Gene” algorithmechanically and Nick Lane’s “POWER, SEX, SUICIDE-
Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life” energetically (pun intended) back up Darwin’s theory of evolution.

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Life’s a romance between energy and information.

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Life is more Darwinian drudgery than cosmic existence.

…………………………………………

Life ,as a  local Darwinian cycle, is a precarious pathway off a global entropic cycle.

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Life is a lottery where the jackpot ITSELF leaves no adaptive stone unturned to reach (or build?) us.

…………………………………………

Even a stone treats ( or feels?) itself as a dynamic structure just as a so-called living body. To a stone, a man appears to be more a thing than a process.

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Like everything else, life is both energy and information.

…………………………………………

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Life’s an evolving feedback loop

…………………………………………
A chemical feedback system has evolved into ‘life’.
…………………………………………

Life’s an inner expansion

…………………………………………

“The atoms of our bodies are traceable to stars that manufactured them in their cores and exploded these enriched ingredients across our galaxy, billions of years ago. For this reason, we are biologically connected to every other living thing in the world. We are chemically connected to all molecules on Earth. And we are atomically connected to all atoms in the universe. We are not figuratively, but literally stardust.”
– Neil deGrasse Tyson

…………………………………………
A black hole is the collapse of the LOCAL space-time due to extreme gravity due to a huge amount of mass.

…………………………………………

Black holes expand in, not out. Such inner expansion increases inner complexity.
…………………………………………

Structures like strings,quarks, atoms, molecules or living organisms might be the result of a sort of inner complexity or disguised cosmic growth.

…………………………………………

When we download a movie onto our smart phone, it gets ‘expanded’ on the inside.

…………………………………………

When we add data to a hard drive, it gets ‘computationally’ bigger.

…………………………………………

DNA works like a ‘fragile hard drive’ storing information about a local spatio-temporal growth or changes. Perhaps the spontaneous processing of these very data is enjoyed as ‘life’ by ‘contingent containers’ like us.

…………………………………………

“Literally the stuff of which we’re made came from the deep interior of stars that exploded, and we evolved by the very same laws and rules that the rest of the universe evolves by.” – Brian Greene

…………………………………………

“I think it’s a very, very interesting question whether the cosmological growth of space is connected to the growth of some kind of complexity and whether the cosmic clock, the evolution of the universe, is connected with the evolution of complexity. There, I don’t know the answer.”
-Susskind

…………………………………………

A photon is not a thing but a wave or signal or information or change in electromagnetic field. Such a change can be viewed as either particle(photon) or wave(light).

…………………………………………

Black holes (i.e. dense masses) so tightly squeeze space-time locality that even information ( i.e. light ) loses its escape velocity and gets trapped………………………………………….

In general relativity, space and time together behave like a smooth rubber sheet. The mass of a heavy object dimples the geometry of spacetime.
…………………………………………

Biological evolution explains diversification of plants and animals by variation and natural selection. The origin of life is still UNKNOWN. Perhaps life started as a chemical system.

Cosmological evolution explains the formation of galaxies, stars or planets by an expanding big bang model of our universe. The origin of the universe is still UNKNOWN. Perhaps our universe started as a quantum system.
……………………………………..

“ Respond to every call that excites your spirit. ”
― Rumi

……………………………………..

“Humanity as an abstract doesn’t exist; humanity is the human being.”
Eckhart Tolle
…………………………………………
“You are not IN the universe, you ARE the universe, an intrinsic part of it. Ultimately you are not a person, but a focal point where the universe is becoming conscious of itself. What an amazing miracle!”

Eckhart Tolle

…………………………………………

“On a deeper level you are already complete. When you realize that, there is a joyous energy behind what you do.”
Eckhart Tolle

…………………………………………
“The Truth is far more powerful than any weapon of mass destruction.”

  • Gandhi
    ……………………………………..
    ……………………………………..
    “Life is an adventure, it’s not a package tour.” ~ Eckhart Tolle

……………………………………..

“Most people treat the present moment as if it were an obstacle that they need to overcome. Since the present moment is life itself, it is an insane way to live.”

Eckhart Tolle

…………………………………………

“Time isn’t precious at all, because it is an illusion.”

Eckhart Tolle

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

 

According to Richard Dawkins’  famous book “The Selfish Gene”(1976), neither species nor individual beings play  central role in evolution. Living things serve as  useful “packages” for genes’ survival in harsh enviromrnt.

 

…………………………………………

 

According to Richard Dawkins’  famous book “The Selfish Gene”(1976), life on this planet emerged as the byproduct of multiplying replicators’(DNA molecules) survival  in more and more

precariously effective ways.

 

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

 

Life is the enterprise to explore the vistas of  existence (something projected but still embedded in abstract reality).

……………………………………..

 

…………………………………………

“The simplest meaning of life, then, is joy– the exhilaration of experience itself, of physical well-being; sheer satisfaction of muscle and sense, of palate and ear and eye. Even if life had no meaning except for its moments of beauty, that would be
enough.”

-Will Durant

…………………………………………

“Where is the Life we have lost in living?”

-T. S. Elliot

 

…………………………………………

“To follow knowledge like a sinking star, Beyond the utmost bound of human thought.”
-Alfred Tennyson

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
“I’ll drink life to the lees.”
-Alfred Tennyson

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

The formation of the first replicator seems less improbable in metabolism‐first (monomer-rich) theories explaining life’s origin.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

Life may have begun with the spontaneous formation of a replicating organic polymer(perhaps RNA) within an unorganized chemical mixture.The very first template may have emerged as an information‐bearing homopolymer.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………
Meaning and matter are apparently alienated aspects of reality.

…………………………………………

Only Darwinian evolution by natural selection unites ‘matter’ with ‘meaning’ since the latter arises from the former.

…………………………………………
Only Darwinian evolution by natural selection unites ‘matter’ with ‘life’ since the former evolved into the latter.

…………………………………………
Only Darwinian evolution by natural selection unites ‘matter’ with ‘mind’ since the latter arises from the former.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
“Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy. All the rest – whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the mind has nine or twelve categories – comes afterwards. These are games; one must first answer.”

-Albert Camus

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

“The atoms of our bodies are traceable to stars that manufactured them in their cores and exploded these enriched ingredients across our galaxy, billions of years ago. For this reason, we are biologically connected to every other living thing in the world. We are chemically connected to all molecules on Earth. And we are atomically connected to all atoms in the universe. We are not figuratively, but literally stardust.”
– Neil deGrasse Tyson

 

…………………………………………
A black hole is the  collapse of the LOCAL space-time due to extreme gravity due to a huge amount of mass.

 

…………………………………………

Black holes expand in, not out. Such inner expansion increases inner complexity.
…………………………………………

 

Structures like strings,quarks, atoms, molecules or living organisms might be the result of a sort of inner complexity or disguised cosmic  growth.

…………………………………………

When we download a movie onto our smart phone, it gets ‘expanded’ on the inside.

…………………………………………

When we add data to a hard drive, it gets ‘computationally’ bigger.

…………………………………………

DNA works like a ‘fragile hard drive’ storing information about a local spatio-temporal   growth or changes. Perhaps the spontaneous processing of these very data is enjoyed as ‘life’ by ‘contingent containers’ like us.

 

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

When available molecular materials were churned with available free energy, numerous forms or patterns came into being. Life belongs to those numerous forms or dynamic patterns.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Metabolism had been mere algorithm ( blind information processing) before nucleic acid (information storage) infected and manipulated it. Not information processing but information storage initiated the origin of life.
—————————————–

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
—————————————–

The origin of life is still shrouded in mystery because of many differing models.

—————————————–

Since many lineages of organisms have gone extinct, molecular machinery of life at its origin might not be present in extant organisms. But to empirically solve the mystery of the origin of life, we have to depend on the continuity of biology.

—————————————–

Hadean =of pre-geological times  represented by hellish and molten earth during the formation of the solar system. Hades is the Greek god of the underworld.

—————————————–
—————————————–
The panic of certainty(HUP) gradually creates more and more complex scenarios like fields, quarks, atoms, molecules,stars, planets, blackholes,universes , organisms, memes, civilizations and so on. Simpler states are used as default locals.
—————————————–
In automata theory, simple algorithmic steps produce gradually emerging complexity.
—————————————–
—————————————–

When intermolecular arrangemental information manipulates the dynamics of the host molecules, chemistry becomes life.
—————————————–

Life is a digitally algorithmic takeover.
—————————————–
Chemical reactions process analog information (actual molecules) algorithmically, by the influence of weird arrangement of molecules in DNA or digital(sorry, deoxyribo) nucleic acid.
—————————————–
Life is the manipulation of molecular dynamics by molecular information.
—————————————–

A digital algorithmic system began to control metabolism i.e. “analog” life.
—————————————–

Feedback from the environment  changes algorithmic rules  over time.
—————————————–
Evolving complexity is the inevitable byproduct of algorithms, digital information and environmental feedbacks .
—————————————–
Black-boxing is like putting a box around a neuron to measure the box’s overall inputs and outputs, instead of its inner workings. It is  a way of measuring  causal emergence in a single neuron that isn’t amenable to coarse-graining of its component atoms. Black-boxing measurement is used in  biological and engineering systems.
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—————————————–
Life began when algorithms took control.
—————————————–
Various nonliving molecules  accumulated and initiated metabolism, reproduction and eventually evolution.
—————————————–
Among structural, informational and chemical roles, informational role transformed nonliving molecular chemistry into life.
—————————————–
Not information processing but information storage initiated the origin of life.
—————————————–
Metabolism was mere algorithm (information processing) before nucleic acid (information storage) infected it.
—————————————–
Just like an algorithmic computer program, metabolic chemical reactions “process” input information into output products.
—————————————–
Life began when stored information controlled chemical reactions.
—————————————–
Life began when information manipulated the matter.
—————————————–
Life is information’s control over the matter containing it.
—————————————–
Life is context-dependent causation.
People would rather suffer than commit suicide, provided they are chosen as the hosts of memes( like love for dear ones to tie to or a talent to be used or  a memory worth cherishing) .

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Duality is the best cognitive tool to explain organism  (hydrothermal gene colonising earth ) and free will(savanna meme colonising multiverse ).

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Metal- carbon dioxide (CO2) reaction on the early Earth is a sort of duality for microbial CO2 use (Either CO2 itself or more reactive carbon-based molecules such as hydrogen cyanide or formaldehyde).

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—————————————–
Atom’s orbital electrons power both industrial (non living) and cellular(living) factories.
—————————————–
Even living cells are powered by electrons.
—————————————–
Living cells are powered by electrons from food .
—————————————–
Most cells use electrons from food for a living , but some bacteria live on pure electricity.
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—————————————–
Life is actually a circuit with a source(food) and a dump(oxygen) for electrons.
—————————————–
Cherishing a single unjust belief means to give licence to many other unjust beliefs and behaviours enough to ruin one’s life.
—————————————–
Life is to use water as electron donor.
—————————————–
All organisms, from a bacterium to a blue whale, need a source of electrons, and a place to dump them.
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—————————————–
When a battery’s chemicals are converted into other substances, ions (atoms with too few or too many electrons) are attracted by two dissimilar (donor and acceptor of electrons) metals , but electrons march from one metal to the other through the outer circuit, powering a light bulb.
—————————————–
Life refers fundamentally to some physical processes (typical of a hadean planet) extant in the form of many symbiotic groups.
Such processes include electricity (oxidation – reduction), natural selection (stabilisation), replication (molecular bonding and splitting),
information processing (environmental feedback), etc.
—————————————–

Electricity-eating bacteria nearest to the electrode grow biological wires to supply electricity to other microbes.
—————————————–
To remain alive, organisms harness energy in the form of electrons.
—————————————–
By enzymes the electrons from sugar are released to join oxygen releasing kinetic energy.
—————————————–
Organisms living in low-oxygen environments ‘breathe’ in iron, sulphur or even hydrogen (HIS ).
—————————————–
Geobacter metallireducens get their electrons from organic compounds, and pass them onto iron oxides.
—————————————–
Geobacter bacteria live on energy sources unavailable to other lifeforms.
—————————————–
In future, microbial fuel cells of seaweed, urine or sewage can power our smartphones.
—————————————–
Shewanella oneidensis can “eat” electrons directly from minerals and rocks.
—————————————–
Some bacteria take their electrons directly from iron and sulphur in the seabed.
—————————————–
Electron-eating and electron-excreting microbes pass electrons between each other.
—————————————–
—————————————–
Seabed-microbes get electrons from dead algae and animals and supply methane directly and electrons via wires to archaea. The archaea feed on electrons from methane, oxidising the gas to generate carbonate.They then pass the electrons on to their partner bacteria along the nanowires, which act like power cables. Finally the bacteria deposit the electrons onto sulphate, producing energy that the cell can use in the process.
—————————————–
Electronic cooperation may have evolved in the low-oxygen past . The first bacterium takes electrons from sulphide and passes them on to the next cell, and so on until the final bacterium can dump the electrons onto oxygen.
—————————————–
—————————————–
In the human gut chains of magnetite can form, bridging the gap between the electron-donating and the electron-accepting bacteria.
—————————————–
At the bottom of the ocean or deep underground, there is not enough energy for an organism to evolve. They just exist in their primordial forms .
—————————————–
‘Oxidation-reduction’ is a dualism for ‘growth’. Nature is an office without departmental branches. Biology =Physics.
—————————————–
—————————————–
Astrobiologists need just an electrode to look for evidence of extraterrestrial life.
—————————————–
—————————————–
Many of primitive lifeforms – such as bacteria and archaea – are still thriving without oxygen.
—————————————–
Life exploded when oxygen became available in the atmosphere and ocean. Oxygen is more efficient for the production of energy.
—————————————–
Inside mitochondria, nutrients and oxygen generate ATP, the economical energy storage . Bacteria and archaea lack complexity because they lack the mitochondria.
—————————————–
Some primitive bacteria could use protons instead of oxygen as their electron dump.
—————————————–
EVERY  scientific fact works like a filter for human thoughts, behaviours, priorities and responsibilities.
—————————————–
A scientific fact lightens the burden of  unnecessary concerns.
EVERY  scientific fact updates us.
—————————————–
—————————————–

We don’t need to remember that we’re made of proteins, haemoglobin , blood and chemicals to enjoy the daily life. But the knowledge makes us prefer a hospital to a temple for a snakebitten patient . Likewise, the knowledge of the ultimate ingredients of the Universe provides us with better models to predict events, invent new  technologies, behave logically and escape any dinosaur-like-extinction .
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All reactions which involve electron flow are known as oxidation-reduction reactions (or redox reactions).
—————————————–
The flow of electrons provides energy to about 39 trillion bacterial cells living among 30 trillion human cells.
—————————————–
We have a higher concentration of bacteria in our guts than in other body parts.
—————————————–
—————————————–
200 different types of human cells include red blood cells (erythrocytes), skin cells, neurons (nerve cells), fat cells,etc.
—————————————–
Cells in the brain are longer in shape to transmit signals.
—————————————–
Cells of the heart have more mitochondria because they need a lot of energy.
—————————————–
There are three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
—————————————–
25 trillion Red blood cells (RBCs) are over 80 percent of all cells.
—————————————–
Women have fewer RBCs than men.
—————————————–
People living at higher altitudes have more RBCs .
—————————————–
RBCs live for about 120 days.
Cells in the brain stay alive throughout a person’s life.
—————————————–
—————————————–
Mature red blood cells host hemoglobin and so have no
mitochondria or other organelles.
—————————————–
Mature red blood cells have no
mitochondria and depend on anaerobic fermentation.
—————————————–
Eye’s lens fibers (sacks of clear protein)  have no mitochondria or other organelles.
—————————————–
Cancer cells can sometimes shift to anaerobic metabolism as they deregulate cell metabolism. This shift is a ‘hallmark of cancer’.
—————————————–
Muscle cells shift to anaerobic respiration ( using lactic acid as the terminal electron acceptor ) when sufficient oxygen is not available.
—————————————–
When sufficient oxygen is not available, cells don’t instantly die because of lactic acid production i. e. fermentation.
—————————————–
Lactic acid reaches a concentration high enough to stimulate pain receptors to metabolise itself .
—————————————–
Oxygen acts as the terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.
—————————————–
Cellular respiration is a redox reaction to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into usable energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
—————————————–
—————————————– Glycolysis turns 6C glucose into two 3C molecules of Pyruvate to help it enter the mitochondria.
—————————————–
—————————————– Aerobic respiration requires oxygen in order to generate energy molecule ATP, where as an anaerobic respiration generate ATP with inorganic molecules other than oxygen.
—————————————–

—————————————–
For plants, the upper and lower ends of the light spectrum are the wavelengths that split water (H 2O) during photosynthesis,to release its electrons for the  reduction of carbon dioxide (CO 2) and the release of diatomic oxygen (O2 ) to the atmosphere.
—————————————–
—————————————–
Biological oxidation-reduction reactions produce large amounts of Gibbs free energy to be synthesised into the energy unit called adenosine triphosphate or ATP.
—————————————–
We exhale carbon dioxide and water.
—————————————–
Physics is all that  is, ever was or ever will be. To gain any knowledge of biological processes, we must start with redox potential of such a system. Only a redox perspective allows us to view physics as chemistry and chemistry as ‘biology’.
—————————————–
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—————————————–
The universe is more a verb than a noun. HUP decrees ‘changes’ initially to homogeneous primordial supersymmetric omnipotent super-field and then to homogeneous quantum foam. Changes get enough time to interact with the default as well as the other changes. Similarly changing processes fall spontaneously into symbiotic groups giving rise to phylogeny.
—————————————–
—————————————–
Our identity is best revealed in a  cosmic context, through the eyes of evolution.
—————————————–
Evolution is to get a new form as the sum total of many small but gradually accumulated changes .
—————————————–
Carbohydrates, proteins,lipids and nucleic acids– are the four macromolecules to build an organism. —————————————–
…………………………………………
Since HUP distorts  homogeneity,  Supersymmetry/Nothingness > Fields > Particles > Atoms >  Molecules > Monomers >  Polymers > Organisms.
—————————————–
Proteins are polymers of multiple monomer units called amino acid.
…………………………………………

22 major amino acids, along with hundreds of other minor amino acids, keep up the hardware for life  on earth.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Everything should be looked at with an evolutionary perspective.
…………………………………………
The Hadean eon
represents the molten Earth.
Archean eon represents bacteria and archaea.
The Proterozoic eon represents oxygen in atmosphere.
Phanerozoic eon represents
human.
…………………………………………
To investigate life’s origin, physics must be tallied with phylogenics.
…………………………………………
First organic molecule in the known universe?
…………………………………………

Amino acids are one of the first organic molecules to appear on Earth.
…………………………………………
Organisms need to synthesize most of the Amino acids ,the main ingredients for cellular metabolism.
…………………………………………
More than five hundred amino acids are in nature, but only twenty-two build proteins i.e. organisms.
…………………………………………
The mystery shrouding ‘life’ can be reduced by recognizing it just as a chaotic ( accidental but naturally selected) coupling of  redundant redox reactions,protonation ,thermodynamics, entropy ,crystalization,fractal formation and information processing typical of a hadean planet.

…………………………………………
Amino acids are all in one .They function as building blocks of proteins,
energy metabolites, nutrients and even chemical messengers.
…………………………………………

Amino acids all have a common foundation or “backbone” held together by  carbon atoms. An extra sidechain of atoms is different for every amino acid.
…………………………………………
“Amino acid space”, the set of plausible amino acids that could have been used , explains ‘why just 22’.
…………………………………………
Amino acids with a single carbon connector are called alpha amino acids. If more than one , they are called beta amino acids and so on.
…………………………………………
Amino acids can be produced abiotically in meteorites and interstellar medium.
…………………………………………

Isomers are variations of each amino acid by shuffling the atoms around.  Thus a definite molecular formula generating many different chemical structures gives  an “isomer space”.
…………………………………………
This isomer space depends on how many atoms there are in the acid.
…………………………………………
The Murchison meteorite has at least 75 amino acids in it.
…………………………………………
The amino acid space is beyond the isomers.
…………………………………………

Hadean earth had simple chemicals. Gradually they became amino acids , proteins , cells and organisms-one turning into the next.
…………………………………………
Only a redox perspective allows us to view life as ‘energy transfer ‘ or’ electricity’.
—————————————–
To really tackle the ecological precariousness, we should discover our ‘selves’ or ‘agents’ within phylogenic physics.
—————————————–
—————————————–
—————————————–
Electron flow from food to oxygen fills proton dam to  push or pull cellular molecules whenever needed to perform tasks collectively called ‘life’. Just like our home, evolved organisms depend on a safe circuit called ‘digestive system’.
—————————————–

—————————————–
Life is one of the chances of releasing energy stored in field excitations out of symmetry breaking later coupled with phylogenic stresses dubbed as pain, pleasure or meme.
—————————————–

…………………………………………
Life is an angst.
Life is the stream of angst and joy.
Life is the stream of consciousness.
…………………………………………
Life is a thermodynamically open system with inputs and outputs.
…………………………………………

Cell is  an ‘umbrella term’ for metabolism,growth and procreation.

…………………………………………
Nucleic acid is a storage system for environmental stresses with digital cogs or algorithmic programmes in the form of molecular pattern-change affecting future interaction with the environment.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………
…………………………………………
If there is a probability of exactly 1 that life should emerge somewhere in a million billion chances (planets), we must find ourselves on that one.
…………………………………………
In an almost infinite universe there is always a probability of life emerging on at least few planets, and we must find ourselves on one of them.
…………………………………………
Even if our scientists succeed in creating ‘life’ from abiotic molecules it will merely indicate that such things are possible.It might not be how life actually emerges in the universe .
…………………………………………

…………………………………………
“The secrets of evolution are death and time. The deaths of enormous numbers of lifeforms that were imperfectly adapted to the environment; and time for a long succession of small mutations that were by accident adaptive; time for the slow accumulation of patterns of favorable mutations.”
– Carl Sagan
…………………………………………
The Sun has a limited fuel reserve.
…………………………………………
We are the product of  4.5 billion years of evolution on Earth but 13.7 billion years of evolution in the universe.
…………………………………………
An eternal context  has given  birth to physical universe, stars,planets, plants, animals and other ephemerals.
…………………………………………
During the origin of life, the earth would rotate so speedily that  just a quarter of 24hrs was enough to make a day.The speed of the hadean planet churned the seething undersea chemical cauldron to cook ‘life’.
…………………………………………
During the origin of life, the earth was all water, except a few volcanic islands.
…………………………………………
During the origin of life in the seething undersea chemical cauldron, the moon was closer and bigger but  the sunlight was weak due to orange (CH4) smog and water vapour.
…………………………………………
‘Sea’ is a far better name than ‘Earth’ for our planet.
…………………………………………
Without a space suite, eyes bulge and burst on airless Mars.
…………………………………………
Oceans cover three-fourths of our planet.
…………………………………………
From space,the earth is  all water.
…………………………………………
During the origin of life, underground magma made the undersea crust  riddled with cracks.
…………………………………………
The geological restlessness of the hadean earth evolved into ‘life’, a chemical restlessness in a new package.
…………………………………………
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…………………………………………
…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Individual immortality is bound to hamper variation , adaptability , natural selection , evolution and emergence of higher intelligence – biological as well as artificial.
…………………………………………
Individual immortalists might hamper the development of higher levels of evolution.
…………………………………………
Nature must be wasteful to discover what we call ‘life’.
…………………………………………
99.9 % of species are now disappeared. So we must take care of our own species.We must embrace science as the saviour.
…………………………………………
The hierarchy of physical processes serves as  scaffolding for next level evolution.
…………………………………………
In biological evolution, every generation serves as scaffolding to update the default status for the next generation.
…………………………………………
“Believing as I do that man in the distant future will be a far more perfect creature than he now is, it is an intolerable thought that he and all other sentient beings are doomed to complete annihilation after such long-continued slow progress. What can we do? What if we challenge the assumption of intelligence having no influence on the future? What if life and intelligence could have influence on the future of the cosmos?”
-Darwin’s reaction to the heat death of the universe.
…………………………………………
“Intelligent information- processing must come into existence in the Universe, and, once it comes into existence, it will never die out.” -Barrow and Tipler
…………………………………………
“Reproduction is not something that belongs to living organisms by some miraculous linkage, but is simply a specialized means of adaptation of a specialized class of disturbances”.
-Ashby
…………………………………………
‘Life’ is the old-fashioned name for ‘adaptability’.Reproduction proved to be far more evolutionarily economical than immortality to maintain ADAPTABILITY.
…………………………………………
Unchangable rules of Mathematics and Geometry represent our strongly grounded physical existence, not vulnerable to any malicious will or ‘abracadabra’.

…………………………………………

None can make us vanish by uttering ‘abracadabra’ for the same reason that no magic can make two straight lines of the same plane  intersect in more than a single point.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………

…………………………………………
The emergence of life is enigmatic because the mystery lies in  smelling  a general trend out of just one example.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Either as a thermodynamically open system or as a data cruncher, there is no need for a living system to die, as long as it can draw and dump electrons as input and output.
…………………………………………
A bristlecone pine tree has been living among us for more than four thousand years.
…………………………………………
The jellyfish can reverse its life cycle to have an indefinite lifespan.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Physical processes appear to be  the loose ends of coloured threads weaving the tapestry of reality.Since a single cord is enough to be tangled,   physical processes tend to tangle into complex and hotchpotch like things like ‘cosmos’, ‘life’ or ‘consciousness’. Life is such a tangled tuft of coloured cords.
…………………………………………
Our survival-mechanical crave for a miraculous existential status  of ‘life’, can’t change the indifferent physics-abiding  ‘nature’ of ‘natural life’, just like a stone or a liquid.
…………………………………………
In ice, every hydrogen atom is involved in hydrogen bond.
…………………………………………
Physics and mathematics are weird enough to invent ‘universe’,  ‘life’ or any such mindblowing ‘things’.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Plants  get electrons from water .Animals  get electrons from sugar. Live electronic circuit makes and maintains proton dam in both. Life’s turbine is run by leaking protons.

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics might be an inherent characteristic of life.
…………………………………………
There might be a quantum origin of life.
…………………………………………
Three main philosophical views on the nature of life are ( 1)reductive physicalism , (2) systemic emergentism through the merging of geothermal energetics, electron gradient, proton gradient,  metabolism , replication and many such ‘mere’ abiotic processes and (3) quantum algorithm  increasing the eternal  probabilities of existence of auto replicative structures.
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…………………………………………
Transcription, translation or mutations in DNA can be interpreted as the quantum noise processes.
…………………………………………
Bizarre quantum effects can be utilized in biotechnology. There are even quantum mechanical models of aging,  tumors, cancer or  intracellular dynamics.
…………………………………………
Quantum mechanics can explain  coherent transport of electron excitation over a short period of time during photosynthesis.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
The very concept of “fact”—a discrete, isolated, indifferent statement, free from emotional and social contexts—is a social construct of the 16th century science.

…………………………………………
…………………………………………
There are molecular mechanisms for generating transmembrane proton gradients in modern cells.
…………………………………………
‘A machine’ is schematically designed to perform  elementary physical processes to achieve a funtional purpose.
A totality of  symbiotically coupled  elementary physical processes having some functional channels strengthened by natural selection and environmental feedbacks, is adorably called ‘a living body’.
…………………………………………
Energy centric origin of life (Nick Lane’s proton gradient) is more  fundamental than gene centric ( Richard Dawkins’ replicating molecules).
…………………………………………
Circumstantial stresses forced a spatio-temporal stream of  a proton gradient to adapt to the primitive ocean spinning the grandest  yarn. The grandest yarn is officially called ‘life’.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………

To define ‘life’, it is not enough to discover how earthly life started accidentally. It requires a general rule governing the emergence of any life anywhere. Perhaps any life anywhere  emerges as an  internal proton flow  sustained by an external electron flow. Both might be independently  kickstarted by something else and then get coupled with each other.Electrons and protons are spatio temporally available .
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
A sort of oceanic filtering evolved into life.

…………………………………………
Life is a complex electrochemical filtering. Even a trivial rock filtering seawater is associated with the meaning of life.

…………………………………………
Filtering>Chemical gradient>Electrical gradient>Growth>Splitting>Replication>Life.

…………………………………………
‘The self’ materialized on the hadean earth using no more than rocks, water and carbon dioxide. Most energy flux available in the form of electrochemical  gradient must have simply dissipated without use as enzymes that economically catalyse very specific reactions were yet to evolve.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Any grand theory explains a lot about the world.
…………………………………………
The role that energy plays in all living things can explain why life is the way it is.
…………………………………………
To define ‘life’, it is necessary to understand the role of energetic electrons.
…………………………………………
Life is one of the electronic circuits known as ‘redox reactions’  in the known universe.
…………………………………………
All complex life shares a common ancestor, gets old and reproduces via sex. Perhaps such common traits arise from the evolutionary expansion / spontaneous distribution of the planetary energy.
…………………………………………

‘Life’ is just an ‘evolved disguise’ of the proton gradient in hydrothermal vents sending bitter alkaline fluid from the Earth’s crust  to acidic seawater.
…………………………………………
‘Life’ is an evolutionary perpetuation of geothermal proton gradient.
…………………………………………
To colonize early Earth’s oceans, the  primordial life-forms left deep-sea vents only when the battery of life(proton gradient ) evolved enough to be recharged by an alternative ‘alkaline fluid’  (electron-donor).
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Membrane is not a mere protecting shelter for life. Life  itself nucleated around membrane in the form of proton gradient.Proton gradient represents the earliest ‘life’. Membrane represents the earliest body.

…………………………………………
“Ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.” – John 8:32

…………………………………………
…………………………………………
The porous hydrothermal vents — where alkaline seawater spews from cracks in the ocean crust — creates a proton dam. When this ‘battery’ like proton gradient falls  prey to spatiotemporal splitting, a new name called ‘LIFE’ is attributed to it.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

“The collective system is alive. Its parts are just chemicals.”

  • Kauffman

…………………………………………
…………………………………………

Evolution is the gradual accumulation of ‘very little changes’ over a long period of time. As a result, the transformed thing looks like a totally different one without any relation to its initial form. Thus, fish became ape. Ape became man. Some past ancestor of fish obviously evolved from some simple chemical or molecular systems claiming no ‘living’ status.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Life is, fundamentally not merely, a chemical reaction.
…………………………………………

For life to have emerged from CO₂, rocks, and water on the early Earth, a sustained source of chemically transducible energy was essential.
…………………………………………

Medical sciences have  discovered  many physical and chemical processes in our body. Our so-called ‘life’ might just be a symbiotic survival  of such ‘indifferent’ processes.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
“We do not ‘come into’ this world: we come out of it, as leaves from a tree. As the ocean ‘waves’, the universe ‘peoples’.”

— Alan Watts
…………………………………………

Natural  events individually happen only once. Perhaps we shouldn’t ascribe any ‘extra’ precariousness to the emergence of life.
…………………………………………
Natural  events individually happen only once. Such infinitely varied natural events naturally include ‘life’, a real phenomenon but an imaginary term.
…………………………………………

Life might require more than a ‘Goldilocks Zone’ – a planet at a convenient distance from a suitable star.
…………………………………………
‘Goldilocks Zone’ is the place in a stellar system where the temperature is just right – neither too hot nor too cold – for liquid water to exist on a planet.

…………………………………………

Life might require a large moon.
…………………………………………

Life might require a planet with a rocky mantle along with a moving molten core producing a magnetic field to block deadly cosmic radiation.
…………………………………………
Life might require a bizarre and rare  biochemical reaction.

…………………………………………
Natural  events individually happen only once. Emergence of life might not be more precarious than all other events in nature.
…………………………………………
Perhaps life happened only once on Earth since all life is the same at the molecular level.
…………………………………………

Perhaps earthly life has one common ancestor  since all life is the same at the molecular level.
…………………………………………

Drake Equation crunches the numbers of   input variables to calculate the probability of alien life. The absolute number of minimum variables is still undecided.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Wwe

…………………………………………

A sort of ‘free energy’ evolved into ‘life’.

…………………………………………

Biological evolution was preceded by chemical evolution. The first polymeric molecules capable of storing information and reproducing themselves were randomly assembled from prebiotic molecules. The most efficient replicators evolved into informational nucleic acids – the basis for all forms of life on our planet.

…………………………………………

Even simple chemical reaction pathways could have given rise to DNA subunits on the early Earth.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Life began on Earth when simple molecules in the early environment became complexified by the input of ambient energy.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Life is the most wonderful phenomenon.

…………………………………………

 
“Nothing is too wonderful to be true, if it be consistent with the laws of nature.”
-Michael Faraday

…………………………………………
“The human race is just a chemical scum on a moderate-sized planet orbiting round a very average star in the outer suburb of one among a hundred billion galaxies.”
Stephen Hawking
…………………………………………
LIFE, not only initially but also fundamentally, might be a leaking of protons from an internal dam sustained by an external electron flow.


Proton leaking is the backbone process of life.

…………………………………………

 
Life is  too unstructured to have any  literary meaning. It is a SORT  of symbiotic survival of metabolic, genetic and memetic contingencies.
…………………………………………
Life is the survival of terror. The terror of death  makes life LIFE, an intensely joyful experience.
…………………………………………
Life is not the whole story, just a part of the grandest one.
…………………………………………
“Every block of stone has a statue inside it and it is the task of the sculptor to discover it. ” ― Michelangelo
…………………………………………
‘Life’ is a tangled tuft of almost invisible threads of physical processes. …………………………………………
‘Life’ doesn’t originate following any single prescribed recipe. It is merely an instant hotchpotch of default physical processes.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
A theory of biological evolution should explain the origin and function of life on any astronomical body from an abiotic beginning.
…………………………………………
The classic definition of life involves seven key characteristics: reproduction, a cellular basis, growth and development, biological evolution, regulation, response and metabolism .
Viruses are excluded as non-cellular and non-metabolic, while mules could equally be excluded as non-reproductive.
…………………………………………
Erwin Schrödinger defined life as that which resists decaying to disorder and to equilibrium.
…………………………………………
“Life is one member of the class of phenomena which are open or continuous reaction systems able to decrease their entropy at the expense of substances or energy taken in from the environment and subsequently rejected in a degraded form”.
Lovelock
…………………………………………
Life at some point came from non-life. This immediately challenging fact requires at least one moment of abiogenesis.
…………………………………………
The thermodynamic definition of life, as a subclass of systems that remain far from thermodynamic equilibrium and convert free energy to less useful energy, allows for a transition from abiotic to biotic more easily than the seven characteristics commonly used, and evades the difficulty of viruses and mules as non-organisms.
…………………………………………
The transition from abiotic to biotic is a gradient rather than a sharp step, moving from one sub-class to another.
…………………………………………
Pascal viewed that life emerged through states of partial ‘aliveness’.
…………………………………………
Life is merely one expression along the matter-energy continuum.
…………………………………………
Any discussion concerning the origin of life in a thermodynamic model need only relate to material availability, since all other considerations are outcomes of the universal laws of physics.
…………………………………………
Life is a thermodynamic concept.
…………………………………………
Biology is understandable only in the light of evolution.
The evolution of life is best understood through a thermodynamic lens.
…………………………………………
Thermodynamics determines structure, function and change at every level of organization of the biosphere.
…………………………………………
Biological diversification is the translation of ‘drive towards maximum entropy production’.
…………………………………………
‘Drive towards maximum entropy production’ is represented by change in protein structure and function.
…………………………………………
‘Drive towards maximum entropy production’ is expressed in organismal diversity.
…………………………………………
Biological evolution is a thermodynamic process by which maximum entropy production is restored.
…………………………………………
Biological diversification can be best understood as a diffusional process.
…………………………………………
“As biosystems grow and develop, they should increase their total dissipation, and develop more complex structures with more energy flow, increase their cycling activity, develop greater diversity and generate more hierarchical levels”.
Toussaint and Schneider
…………………………………………
“Self-acceleration results from the tendency towards ever-increasing dispersal of the energy within the ecosystem as expressed in ever-increasing diversity; increasing diversity causes an increase in the rate of energy flow”.
Johnson
…………………………………………
Diffusion of diversity is a journey towards an equilibrium state of maximum entropy.
…………………………………………
Diversification originates from the second law of thermodynamics.
…………………………………………
Life diffuses into a multidimensional volume.
…………………………………………
Ecospace is the multidimensional space within which biological diffusion occurs.
…………………………………………
Ecospace is the multidimensional space, wherein life can exist.
…………………………………………
Ecospace is determined by mass-energy interactions.
…………………………………………
A niche is just one point within ecospace.
…………………………………………
Ecospace is defined only by the potential limitations imposed by the laws of physics.
…………………………………………
An increase in energy flux, such as eutrophication, can lead to a decrease in ecospace.
…………………………………………
Ecospace is ultimately an emergent thermodynamic outcome.
…………………………………………
Biological systems diffuse towards a dynamic equilibrium state within ecospace.
…………………………………………
Diversification is a diffusional process.
…………………………………………
If there is a concentration gradient (i.e., available ecospace), material will move from high to low concentration regions.
…………………………………………
Thermodynamics provides an explanation for the direction and rate of evolution.
…………………………………………
Ecospace is proportional to bio-diversity.
…………………………………………
Each species represents a different location within ecospace.
…………………………………………
A thermodynamic explanation of evolution represents a “general abstract theory” championed by Moore and with the concept of consilience of Wilson.
…………………………………………
Boltzmann was the first to describe the struggle for existence in thermodynamic terms.
…………………………………………
“The general struggle for existence of animate beings is therefore not a struggle for raw materials —these, for organisms, are air, water and soil, all abundantly available—nor for energy which exists in plenty in any body in the form of heat (albeit unfortunately not transformable), but a struggle for entropy, which becomes available through the transition of energy from the hot sun to the cold earth.”

  • Boltzmann
    …………………………………………
    Thermodynamics influenced biological evolution.
    …………………………………………
    Schrödinger proposed that biological self-organization and thermodynamics would be reconciled by the study of living systems from a non-equilibrium perspective.
    …………………………………………
    Prigogine referred to life forms as dissipative structures, and argued that early organisms evolved from non-living, far-from-equilibrium structures, increasing in complexity through increased entropy production.
    …………………………………………
    Fenchel demonstrated that the increasing complexity of life on our planet followed an increasingly dissipative path, the specific energy needs per unit biomass being higher for multi-cellular organisms than for unicellular organisms, and for homeothermic animals in comparison to poikilothermic animals.
    …………………………………………
    “In any real process, it is impossible to dissipate a set amount of energy in finite time without creating any structures in the process”.
    Ulanowicz
    …………………………………………
    Given that open systems such as ecosystems will move towards maximizing dispersal of energy, we expect biological diversity to increase towards a level representing maximum entropic production.
    …………………………………………
    Life diffuses into available energetic space (ecospace) towards a dynamic equilibrium, driven by increasing entropy within the genetic material. This dynamic equilibrium is punctured by extinction events followed by diffusion into available ecospace.
    …………………………………………
    “Darwin’s theory forms the theoretical basis of all biology”. – Baverstock and Rönkkö
    …………………………………………
    The history of evolutionary thinking began with the work of Lamarck who explained that evolution followed a path of increasing complexity determined by some vital force or fluid.
    It was Charles Darwin who set out the idea of evolution through natural selection.
    Gregor Mendel provided a mathematical foundation. The selfish gene advocated by George Williams, William Hamilton and Richard Dawkins represents neo-Darwinism.
    …………………………………………
    Just as Darwin had focused on heterogeneity between individual organisms as a basis for a mechanistic model of evolution, Boltzmann developed a mechanistic model of macroscopic phenomena focused upon molecular heterogeneity.
    …………………………………………
    Open systems interacting with the external environment in non-linear ways are stabilized in such a way as to maximize entropy production. Open systems existing in a state far from equilibrium become stabilized when entropy production is maximized and this is facilitated by the emergence of dissipative structures. Importantly, dissipative structures with access to free energy will reduce internal entropy and thus become more ordered by externalizing entropic output to the environment. Thus complexity and dissipation are, in effect, two sides of the one coin.
    …………………………………………
    “The main principles of Darwinism are applicable to all evolving systems, from elementary particles to galaxies”. -Prigogine
    ……………………………………..
    “The principle of life will hereafter be shown to be part, or a consequence, of some general law.”

-Darwin
…………………………………………
The principle of life is a part, or a consequence, of a general law called ‘thermodynamics’.
…………………………………………
Life is a braid in spacetime. One day we might discover the grand mathematics that can reveal how we look as a spacetime structure. …………………………………………

Life is a braid in spacetime. George Gamow entitled his autobiography’ My World Line’, a phrase to refer to paths through spacetime. …………………………………………
Unstable K meson has about 70 ways in which it can disintegrate into a set of lighter particles. Interactive braidings of such physical processes build amazing things like us. Such elementary processes are actually classical duality for quantum indeterminacy.
…………………………………………
Life is a blurred stream between classical and quantum rivers.
…………………………………………
LIFE, in general, might be a leaking of protons from an internal dam sustained by an external electron flow. Earthly life might be an updated version of the proton gradient in hydrothermal vents squirting bitter electron-rich alkaline fluid from the Earth’s crust  to proton-rich acidic seawater.
…………………………………………

 
Life is one of the means of  thermodynamic process. Living bodies  are the very courses of blind physical processes.
…………………………………………

 
Even as life maintains its internal order, its loss of heat to the environment allows the universe to experience an overall increase in entropy (or disorder) in accordance with the second law.
……………………………………..

A gene ,a small group of atoms, irreversibly resists decay by dissipating the energy while they transform.

 
……………………………………..

 
Dissipation doesn’t ensure irreversibility, but irreversibility requires dissipation.

 
……………………………………..
Irreversibility is  a hallmark of life.

 
……………………………………..

To have  irreversibility ,  a hallmark of life, a system must  absorb and dissipate heat.
……………………………………..

 
Some arrangements of atoms are  better at absorbing and spending heat than others. These arrangements are more likely to undergo an irreversible transformation.
……………………………………..

 
Looking backward at the  history of a product of a non-equilibrium process, the structure will appear to us like it has adapted to its environment.

 
……………………………………..

 
A system of atoms doesn’t try to do anything—it  just blindly, randomly, shuffles itself around. And yet, through its chemical journey from one shape to another, it self-organizes into something that looks to us like it has adapted.

 
……………………………………..

 
“Language is a labyrinth of paths.” – Wittgenstein.

 
……………………………………..
‘Life’ is ‘dissipative adaptation.’
……………………………………..
Thermodynamically, we are cooling towers for the sun.
……………………………………..

 
Darwinian natural selection is a special case  of dissipative adaptation, a dialect of a more fundamental language.

 
……………………………………..

 
‘Life’ is ‘dissipative adaptation.’
Adaptation occurs on the micro-scale, dissipation ( natural selection) occurs in the world of macroscopic self-replicators.

 
……………………………………..

 
Self-replication is a  way to consume and dissipate energy.

 
……………………………………..
In the language of dissipative adaptation, fitness is not optimal functionality but exceptional irreversibility.
……………………………………..

Life is an inevitable consequence of physics.

 
……………………………………..

“The origin and subsequent evolution of life follow from the fundamental laws of nature and should be as unsurprising as rocks rolling downhill.”
Jeremy England – professor of biophysics at MIT
 

……………………………………..

The most fundamental difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms is that the former is  much more efficient at dissipating energy as heat.
……………………………………..

 
When a group of atoms is surrounded by a heat bath (like the ocean or atmosphere), it will often gradually restructure itself in order to dissipate increasingly more energy. Thus matter acquires  the key physical attribute associated with life.
……………………………………..
The thermodynamical law of increasing entropy  bridges physics and biology.

 
……………………………………..
Hot things cool down, gas diffuses through air, eggs scramble but never spontaneously unscramble; in short, energy tends to disperse or spread out with / begetting time.

 
……………………………………..
Drops of different colours in  water initially remain as separate dots far apart, but over time, the colors spread out, mix, and in the end, there’s just one single color. That’s the universe; the dots, in this case, can be pockets of biological life.
……………………………………..
Biology arises because, in certain environments – like on planets – where the energy balance is so out of whack, physics guarantees that atoms rearrange themselves to be able to deal with the chaotic flow of energy. These atomic structures just happen to resemble what we refer to as “life”.
……………………………………..
“You start with a random clump of atoms, and if you shine light on it for long enough, it should not be so surprising that you get a plant.”
Jeremy England
……………………………………..

 
Trees don’t ungrow because life can’t transcend the laws of thermodynamics.
……………………………………..
From the perspective of a physicist, life isn’t different from non-life in any fundamental sense. Rocks and people, cities and jungles, are all just collections of matter that move and change shape over time while exchanging energy with their surroundings.

 
……………………………………..

 
No equation will ever  leap off the page to make something live and breathe.

 
……………………………………..

Many  separate behaviours distinguish living things. Each of these behaviours is  too limited not to conceive of a non-living thing that accomplishes the same task.
……………………………………..

 
Fire is  a primitive self-replicator that ‘copies’ itself by spreading.

……………………………………..
In Jeremy England’s  “dissipative adaptation,” complex, life-like function can self-organize and emerge from simpler inanimate matter.
……………………………………..

 
Jeremy England is  called the next Charles Darwin.
……………………………………..

 
Life’s  functions are accomplished by molecules.
……………………………………..

 
Molecules are inanimate, and their only ‘function’ is to spin and vibrate. Natural selection sewed such ‘blind functions’ into ‘life’. The word “function” trapezes between life and not-life.
……………………………………..
Wittgenstein argued that a word’s function  depends on its context, a context determined by the agents  who are using it. Amino acids, or even atoms , can write a sonnet, only in the context  of a macromolecule(man).
……………………………………..
Consciousness is an extension of purposiveness. ‘Purpose’ is the translation of  “informational feedbacks from the past” . Even a “feedback” is the translation of “accumulated new reactions out of structural deformation”.
……………………………………..
Physics is devoid of functions. Spacetime ,quantum fields or quantum uncertainty don’t exist for any express reason, but just are.

 
……………………………………..
In biology, systems are fine-tuned to act.  To move, catalyze, and construct.
……………………………………..
“Biology” is the translation of “ accumulation of mutually inclusive functional parts”.
……………………………………..
The pieces, individually obeying nothing more than the basic laws of physics, collectively accrue function.
……………………………………..

 
Function is absent from the world of physics.
……………………………………..

 
Physics doesn’t make a distinction between life and not-life. But biology does.
……………………………………..
Both a tree and a solar panel absorb and transform solar energy, and dump heat into their environment.
……………………………………..

 
Life doesn’t defy the laws of nature.
……………………………………..

 
Species=> Genes => Energy => Disequilibrium (life’s “main fuel”)
……………………………………..
Energy doesn’t drive processes—or become “consumed” or “used” in their occurrence. Disequilibria make living or nonliving things happen.While energy is typically a dominant contributor to the “medium”, the “message” is disequilibri-um dissipation and creation.

 
……………………………………..
An autocatalytic  catalyst is one of the products of the reaction.
……………………………………..
…………………………………………
The museum of reality displays an  existential scaffolding.
…………………………………………

 
“Intelligent information- processing must come into existence in the Universe, and, once it comes into existence, it will never die out.” -Barrow and Tipler
…………………………………………
“Reproduction is not something that belongs to living organisms by some miraculous linkage, but is simply a specialized means of adaptation of a specialized class of disturbances”.
-Ashby
…………………………………………

‘Life’ is the old-fashioned name for ‘adaptability’.Reproduction proved to be far more evolutionarily economical than immortality to maintain ADAPTABILITY.
Absolutely stable or permanent version of ‘life’ might look like supersymmetric quantum field. Evolution didn’t invent it. It  has already been everywhere eternally. Physical laws,universe, energy, matter,gravity, stars,planets, evolution, life,man, etc. are  mere facets of that ‘unchristened mathematical field’.
…………………………………………

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..……………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………
Many data scientists believe that  consciousness (experience-ness) evolved as a survival  tool (data crunching plugin) and we could engineer it in robotic neural networks  by simulating such existential demands.

…………………………………………

Since subjective experience doesn’t exist in any physical dimension,  philosophers describe it as the “ghost in the machine”.

…………………………………………

Many data scientists believe that  consciousness (experience-ness) can be understood best from an engineering perspective and in light of the neural networks of movement control.

…………………………………………

Norman Margolus and Tommaso Toffoli coined ‘computronium’ for any “programmable matter”.

……………………………………..

‘Computronium’ is a theoretical arrangement of matter that is computationally  most capable for that amount of matter. Our consciousness might be a sort of ‘instant computronium state’ of our co-ordinated body. It is not binary but varies within range allowed by Tegmarkian network -the fundamental censorship constraining chaos as well as  abracadabra.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

 

According to Max Tegmark, consciousness  might just be a state of matter, like a solid, a liquid or a gas. Just like  liquids, there might be many types of consciousness.

 

……………………………………..

Each instance of consciousness is a unified and indivisible whole that might  emerge from sophisticated computing materials. As a material state, a computer should be called ‘computronium or a brain ‘perceptronium’. After long Darwinian struggle, a gaseous state of matter (hydrogen)  has evolved into a peceptronium state of matter.

……………………………………..

 

A conscious system  stores, processes and retrieves  information to memetically build a part of existential reality.

……………………………………..

 

“Let’s celebrate this existential picnic!”

-Meme Updater (Naba Kumar Garai)

……………………………………..

 

…………………………………………

Any substance  floods in its liquid state , blows when gaseous, rolls when solid, computes when computronium and thinks when perceptronium. If Max Tegmark is right, consciousness is existentially a state of matter and ultimately a mathematical pattern.

 

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Consciousness can be experienced  only from within.

…………………………………………

We still don’t know how quantum mechanics is related to observation.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
“With rebellion, awareness is born.”

-Albert Camus

…………………………………………

The masks(representatives /agents of conscious minds) that we wear are deeply unconscious.

 

…………………………………………

The masks(representatives of conscious minds) that we wear are tools for adaptive evolution via natural selection.

 

…………………………………………

 

 

 

…………………………………………


The physical brain is the hardware, and the mind is the software.

 

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

According to modern science, truly sentient beings with fundamental sense of identity or agency don’t exist.
…………………………………………
According to modern science, being-ness is a musk, an evolutionary tool.
…………………………………………
Being-ness is the mere linguistic translation of adaptive manipulation of information encrypted in neurons or DNA.

…………………………………………
It might be evolutionarily disadvantageous to watch our natural, organic natures.

…………………………………………

The illusion of ‘doer’ evolved because a particular brain structure (i.e. meme complex) acts mostly in the same way. Symbiotic memes take on the illusion of ‘agent’ for adjustment. United they stand as mind, divided they fall as soliloquies.

…………………………………………

When a pig’s brain perfused with lethal glutaraldehyde before being frozen at –135°C was warmed up, it got alive again.
…………………………………………
Whether directly or online , we interact with the world and tell others  about ourselves. This output stream constitutes who/what I am.
…………………………………………

According to a modern synthetic philosopher Daniel Dennett, a person is “an ape infested with memes”.

…………………………………………
CONSCIOUSNESS might be the ability of a system to be influenced by its previous state and to influence its next state.


The SELF, a meme-complex , extends its own boundaries under the spell of creative and altruistic memes.


…………………………………………

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…………………………………………
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An extremely elaborate braid through spacetime might correspond to our self-awareness. …………………………………………
Water takes the forms of containers it is poured into. We should enjoy pouring our consciousness  into varying perspectives.

 
…………………………………………

“Consciousness is the phenomenon whereby the universe’s very existence is known”

Roger Penrose

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………   

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

“Every man is fully satisfied
that there is such a thing
as truth, or he would not
ask any question.”

-Charles Peirce

…………………………………………

“Life and Reality are not things you can have for yourself unless you accord them to all others. They do not belong to particular persons any more than the sun, moon and stars.”
-Alan Watts

…………………………………………

Reality is whatever exists without descriptive baggages.

…………………………………………

Both idol-worship and celebrity culture rob us of realness.

…………………………………………

Digital algorithms will keep on  replacing humans in more and more jobs.

…………………………………………

Provided universal basic income frees us of daily drudgery,

people will need to be occupied and content.

Our brain is the most advanced computing system in the known universe. It demands a supply of  purposeful tasks to stay active. Even playing virtual reality games serves the purpose.

It is evolutionarily tested that  virtual reality (  whether that be computer games, religious myths or unbridled consumerism ) saves our species in such situations.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Virtual reality is not always encased inside an isolated box. Both religion and consumerism serve as virtual reality games. If you forget to pray, you lose points. If you can’t buy BMW, you lose points.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

The meaning of life is just a fictional story- an instrument to enjoy some typical algorithmic sensations in neurons. It doesn’t matter whether the neurons are stimulated by digital  screen, by a packaged tour, or by thinking about an afterlife happiness.

…………………………………………

A significant percentage of Jewish people keep themselves engaged in religious books and rituals.  Since the government provides them with the basic necessities of life, they do no work. These ‘deep’ players of virtual reality game report higher levels of life-satisfaction than any other section of Israeli society. Even in

global surveys of life satisfaction, Israel beats most other countries. That’s universal basic income in action!

…………………………………………

Virtual reality games are more meaningful than work. Work is the means, virtual engazment is the goal!

…………………………………………

Our species is destined to playing  various virtual reality games  like religion, socialism, democracy, liberalism, consumerism, etc.

………………………………..

……………………………………..

Einstein’s special relativity is called `Euclidean Relativity’.

……………………………………..

Up to Newton’s time, we had been treating ourselves as  localized lumps of mass-energy moving about in space over time. Einstein’s special relativity first assumed us as  long and narrow 4-dimensional tubes, branched with similar other tubes (manifested as our contacts with other objects,  people, consuming food, and excretions) at various points. 

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

In Einstein’s relativity, birth is nothing but branching out from our mother-tube.

……………………………………..

In Einstein’s relativity, death  is nothing but our tube’s diffusion into many smaller tubes.

……………………………………..

 ……………………………………..

In Einstein’s  general theory of relativity, gravity is a change in the geometry of spacetime near where 4-dimensional  tubes are present.

……………………………………..

Since the geometry of spacetime can change even in empty space, reality is more than 4-dimensional tubes. We need quantum mechanics to identity this extra ‘thing’ with fucctuaing quantum fields obeying Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

What is the fundamental nature of cosmos/life/consciousness?

At this stage of our scientific knowledge, many questions, as a matter of physics, are unanswerable. It is an existential  bliss/duty to speculate over all possible memetic models able to somehow answer such questions!

……………………………………..

At this stage of our species’ memetic maturity, we use two ( not only separate but also contradictory! ) memetic models for understanding reality. Yes,  General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are just memetic models!

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

People who quarrel about whether 

parallel lines intersect or not actually mistake a specific model for reality itself.

……………………………………..

Geometrical lines are mathematical memes/maps/models/abstractions 

of straight paths in the Universe. 

……………………………………..

In Euclidean model/geometry, infinitely extended parallel lines do not intersect. 

……………………………………..

In the memetic model of Lobachevski (hyperbolic or doubly-curved surface that resembles the shape of a saddle- convex  along one axis, and concave along the other), infinitely extended parallel lines intersect at one point. 

……………………………………..

In the geometry of Riemann (spherical surfaces), infinitely extended parallel lines cross twice.

……………………………………..

The number of intersections between infinitely extended parallel lines varies with the complexity/variety of  curved space geometries. 

……………………………………..

Both Euclidean and non-Euclidean   geometries are just models of the

observable Universe. 

……………………………………..

Maps/models/memetic narratives   characterize neither Universe nor reality.

……………………………………..

Maps/models/memes do not

constitute properties of reality/ Universe.

……………………………………..

The Universe/reality  is far more

complex than any model of it.

……………………………………..

Since reality  is infinitely more complex than any of its model, scientific

research will never end as long as this reality persists allowing the universe to exist. 

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

Our memetic maps of  reality are never wrong but limited to  their area of applicability. Even Ptolemy’s geocentric astronomy helped to predict positions of the celestial bodies efficiently. Copernicus’s heliocentric model  just generalized such predictions. Newton’s gravity or Einstein’s spacetime curvature gave more and more general maps of our cosmic reality. There is no limit to such generalization until we  know the ultimate nature of reality (theory of everything ?).

……………………………………..

Our memetic models of reality can be improved indefinitely until we get a theory of everything i.e. an all encompassing meme.

……………………………………..

Supersymmetric confinement represents nothingness. Symmetry breaks to infinity. A cabbage takes smaller volume than its torn foliage.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

Though we are part of reality, we can’t  know it directly. In our intellectual adventures, ‘maps’ or ‘memes’ or ‘models’ of reality guide us. Though such models are never wrong, they lose the value outside of their area of applicability.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

Fields  in QFT determine how many fundamental particles (with spin between 0 and 1, inclusive) there are, in a particular state, at a specific spacetime region.

……………………………………..

Our science teachers should promote

the vision that any physical theory is just a tool (imaginary model) for making calculations. Reality needs (what does it even mean?) no  blueprint.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

A quantum system imprints replicas of itself on its environment.

…………………………………………
…………………………………………

In quantum Darwinism experiments,

only a few particles/ a single photon serves as the quantum system, with a handful of other photons serving as the “environment” that interacts with it and broadcasts information about it.
Some laser photons combine them into multiply entangled groups. Then  the environment photons are interrogated to see what information they encode about the system photon’s pointer state – its polarization (the orientation of its oscillating electromagnetic fields), one of the quantum properties able to pass through the filter of quantum Darwinian selection.

…………………………………………

Since information saturates soon,
measurements of just one of the environment photons reveal a lot of the available information about the system photon’s polarization, and measuring an increasing fraction of the environment photons provided diminishing returns.

…………………………………………
In quantum Darwinism experiments,even a single photon can act as an environment to initiate decoherence and selection if it interacts strongly enough with the lone system photon. When interactions are weaker, a larger environment must be monitored.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………
We get a classically objective “position” of a thing because its position state can imprint many identical replicas in the environment.
…………………………………………
An observer can’t monitor more than a fraction of the environment because the redundancy (repetition of messages to reduce the probability of errors in transmission) of information quickly saturates.
…………………………………………
Moneymaking mindset looks down upon philosophy. But quantum physicists often adopt philosophical interpretations to invent quantum computers or AI.
…………………………………………

……………………………………..

An object can exist only  if a

perfectly accurate mathematical description of the universe mathematically allows it to do so. Such a description resembles Tegmark’s  mathematical universe.

……………………………………..

Mere existing might just  be a duality(interchangeability)  for a mathematical tool for making perfectly

accurate predictions, and vice versa. That’s why our existential  reality consists of subjective yes-no questions.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

According to Zurek’s quantum Darwinism , our concrete reality condenses(or gets transacted?) from the multiple competing options  residing fundamentally in quantum realm ( or in subjectively inaccessible  Tegmarkian objectivity/entity?).

…………………………………………

Quantum superposition doesn’t really mean that it is in several states at once; rather, it means that if we make a measurement we will see one of those outcomes. Our familiar existential reality is not objectively independent but  transactional/medium-born/ subjective/in-transit/signal-processed.

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Norman Margolus and Tommaso Toffoli coined ‘computronium’ for any “programmable matter”.

……………………………………..

‘Computronium’ is a theoretical arrangement of matter that is computationally  most capable for that amount of matter. Our consciousness might be a sort of ‘instant computronium state’ of our co-ordinated body. It is not binary but varies within range allowed by Tegmarkian network -the fundamental censorship constraining chaos as well as  abracadabra.

……………………………………..


According to Max Tegmark, consciousness  might just be a state of matter, like a solid, a liquid or a gas. Just like  liquids, there might be many types of consciousness.

……………………………………..

Each instance of consciousness is a unified and indivisible whole that might  emerge from sophisticated computing materials. As a material state, a computer should be called ‘computronium or a brain ‘perceptronium’. After long Darwinian struggle, a gaseous state of matter (hydrogen)  has evolved into a peceptronium state of matter.

……………………………………..

A conscious system  stores, processes and retrieves  information to memetically build a part of existential reality.

……………………………………..

“Let’s celebrate this existential picnic!”

-Meme Updater (Naba Kumar Garai)

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

A photon is the smallest quantifiable unit of light that stays in a superposition (exists both as a particle and a wave at the same time) before someone measures it to determine a particular alignment.

…………………………………………
Even after determining a particular alignment, the photon still stays in a superposition if the second observer is kept unaware of the first’s measurement. As a result, each observer can get  a different alignment representing different reality.

…………………………………………


According to Geoff Jones, photons do not exist.

…………………………………………

In double-slit experiment, an electromagnetic field might fill the entire the entire Universe to ‘know’ that there are two slits there. No particle but a disturbance or new  information is transacted in field’s ledger-book. What is ‘detected’ as a photon is the removal of one quantum or packet of energy from the field. Only ‘disturbances in the media’ i.e.  transmissible information give birth to our so-called reality. Recent quantum-Darwinism and Wigner’s friend experiments dismissing any shared objective reality (that can exist on its own) are in line with such ‘media-born/transmitted/selected/ subjective/memetic reality’.

…………………………………………

Our model of reality can easily exclude  photons if we say that energy can only be added to or subtracted from the field in definite units.

…………………………………………


   
Zurek’s quantum Darwinism attempts to explain how quantum possibilities can give rise to objective, classical reality.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

The laws of physics arranged by Isaac Newton and Einstein — according to which objects have well-defined positions and properties at all times – don’t work at atomic, subatomic and sub-sub-atomic(planckian) scales.

…………………………………………

At atomic, subatomic and sub-sub-atomic(planckian) scales, classical  concreteness dissolves into a soup of possibilities. An atom has no definite position but the probability of finding it in various places.

…………………………………………

In Zurek’s quantum Darwinism, the definite properties(position, speed, spin direction, etc. ) associated with classical physics get naturally selected from a menu of quantum possibilitie(states) since information about robust states get copied,  transmitted and reproduced   fundamentally by  electromagnetic field and apparently  by environmental photons. Since   information about a quantum system gets repeatedly imprinted on our so-called environments, many independent observers agree on a measured value — a hallmark of classicality!

…………………………………………

Electromagnetic field itself is ‘not a thing’ to be seen but medium/wire/default canvas / picture-tube/channel. Changes or distortions on electromagnetic field propagate as signals to make the the world ‘visible’.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

We are the part of a memetic-wilderness called ‘existence’. Existence is a part of a greater memetic-wilderness called ‘reality’. Reality is a part of a magnificent   remoteness  called  ‘mathelogical  relationship between quantum probabilities/ pointer states.’ If Max Tegmark is right, we are just conscious parts of a huge mathematical structure existing on its own and thereby staying immune to memes.

…………………………………………

“Evolutionism is the central, inclusive, organizing outlook of anthropology, comparable in its theoretical power to evolutionism in biology.”
–Marshall Sahlins

…………………………………………
“All life evolves by the differential survival of replicating entities.”
–Richard Dawkins

…………………………………………

The very reality, we belong to and constantly interact with, itself consists of our own memes. The fact is in line with ‘quantummechanically participatory universe’ in which we ourselves build reality with yes-no questions.

…………………………………………

People kept on practicing alchemy until our model of reality included ‘atoms’. When our model of reality included the relational meme E=Mc2,  we couldn’t help splitting atoms to steal its energy. Thus, the very memes we use to describe reality shape our futurity.

…………………………………………


“The truth may be puzzling. It may take some work to grapple with. It may be counterintuitive. It may contradict deeply held prejudices. It may not be consonant with what we desperately want to be true. But our preferences do not determine what’s true.”
-Carl Sagan

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“What seems to me so obvious, even against me, I must support.”
-Albert Camus

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Truth about our human condition is subject to linguistic limitations.

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We are imprisoned in the dark den of existence. Speculations are the breaches to peep at REALITY.


WE SHOULD NOT TREAT REALITY AS A social construction or AN INTERSUBJECTIVE AGREEMENT. …………………………………………

Reality is a trans-subjective construction, to the extent that it evolves with the instrumental data of LHC ,NASA or ISRO. Even a single empirical fact can ruin the most beautiful scientific theory.

………………………………………… Quantum world is different from classical one to the extent that no mathematical formalism permits the rigorous passage from one world to another.

…………………………………………

Several levels of organization appear at one and the same level of Reality. The levels of organization correspond to different structurings of the same fundamental laws. For example, politics and classical physics belong to one and the same level of Reality. …………………………………………
…………………………………………

A level of Reality is what it is because all the other levels exist at the same time. Thus Reality is not only multi-dimensional but also multi-referential. …………………………………………
Science is savouring a unique reality from infinite angles.
…………………………………………
Quantum mechanics has forced our culture to accept multiple levels of the reality we belong to.
…………………………………………
Quantum abstraction not only describes reality but also constitutes it.
………………………………………… Quantum reality is pragmatic and onto- logical at the same time. …………………………………………
Reality is the ultimate system responsible for our very existence, experiences, representations, descriptions, images or mathematical formalizations.
…………………………………………
………………………………………… Quantum abstraction is inseparable from experience. …………………………………………

 

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Something begins to ‘exist’ whenever Tegmarkian reality gets a chance to bloom/unfold/manifest.

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A quantum system imprints replicas of itself on its environment.

…………………………………………
…………………………………………

In quantum Darwinism experiments,

only a few particles/ a single photon serves as the quantum system, with a handful of other photons serving as the “environment” that interacts with it and broadcasts information about it.
Some laser photons combine them into multiply entangled groups. Then  the environment photons are interrogated to see what information they encode about the system photon’s pointer state – its polarization (the orientation of its oscillating electromagnetic fields), one of the quantum properties able to pass through the filter of quantum Darwinian selection.

…………………………………………

Since information saturates soon,
measurements of just one of the environment photons reveal a lot of the available information about the system photon’s polarization, and measuring an increasing fraction of the environment photons provided diminishing returns.

…………………………………………

In quantum Darwinism experiments,even a single photon can act as an environment to initiate decoherence and selection if it interacts strongly enough with the lone system photon. When interactions are weaker, a larger environment must be monitored.
…………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………..
We get a classically objective “position” of a thing because its position state can imprint many identical replicas in the environment.
…………………………………………
An observer can’t monitor more than a fraction of the environment because the redundancy (repetition of messages to reduce the probability of errors in transmission) of information quickly saturates.
…………………………………………
Moneymaking mindset looks down upon philosophy. But quantum physicists often adopt philosophical interpretations to invent quantum computers or AI.
…………………………………………

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According to Zurek’s quantum Darwinism, our concrete reality condenses(or gets transacted?) from the multiple competing options  residing fundamentally in quantum realm ( or in subjectively inaccessible  Tegmarkian objectivity/entity?).

 

…………………………………………

Quantum superposition doesn’t really mean that it is in several states at once; rather, it means that if we make a measurement we will see one of those outcomes. Our familiar existential reality is not objectively independent but  transactional/medium-born/ subjective/in-transit/signal-processed.

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According to Max Tegmark, consciousness  might just be a state of matter, like a solid, a liquid or a gas. Just like  liquids, there might be many types of consciousness.

 

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Each instance of consciousness is a unified and indivisible whole that might  emerge from sophisticated computing materials. As a material state, a computer should be called ‘computronium or a brain ‘perceptronium’. After long Darwinian struggle, a gaseous state of matter (hydrogen)  has evolved into a peceptronium state of matter.

……………………………………..

 

A conscious system  stores, processes and retrieves  information to memetically build a part of existential reality.

……………………………………..

 

“Let’s celebrate this existential picnic!”

-Meme Updater (Naba Kumar Garai)

……………………………………..

…………………………………………   

Any existence is actually a metaphorically projected partial reality.

…………………………………………

A photon is the smallest quantifiable unit of light that stays in a superposition (exists both as a particle and a wave at the same time) before someone measures it to determine a particular alignment.

…………………………………………
Even after determining a particular alignment, the photon still stays in a superposition if the second observer is kept unaware of the first’s measurement. As a result, each observer can get  a different alignment representing different reality.

 

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According to Geoff Jones, photons do not exist.

 

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In double-slit experiment, an electromagnetic field might fill the entire the entire Universe to ‘know’ that there are two slits there. No particle but a disturbance or new  information is transacted in field’s ledger-book. What is ‘detected’ as a photon is the removal of one quantum or packet of energy from the field. Only ‘disturbances in the media’ i.e.  transmissible information give birth to our so-called reality. Recent quantum-Darwinism and Wigner’s friend experiments dismissing any shared objective reality (that can exist on its own) are in line with such ‘media-born/transmitted/selected/ subjective/memetic reality’.

…………………………………………

 

Our model of reality can easily exclude  photons if we say that energy can only be added to or subtracted from the field in definite units.

 

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Zurek’s quantum Darwinism attempts to explain how quantum possibilities can give rise to objective, classical reality.
…………………………………………

 

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The laws of physics arranged by Isaac Newton and Einstein — according to which objects have well-defined positions and properties at all times – don’t work at atomic, subatomic and sub-sub-atomic(planckian) scales.

 

…………………………………………

At atomic, subatomic and sub-sub-atomic(planckian) scales, classical  concreteness dissolves into a soup of possibilities. An atom has no definite position but the probability of finding it in various places.

 

…………………………………………

In Zurek’s quantum Darwinism, the definite properties(position, speed, spin direction, etc. ) associated with classical physics get naturally selected from a menu of quantum possibilitie(states) since information about robust states get copied,  transmitted and reproduced   fundamentally by  electromagnetic field and apparently  by environmental photons. Since   information about a quantum system gets repeatedly imprinted on our so-called environments, many independent observers agree on a measured value — a hallmark of classicality!

…………………………………………

Electromagnetic field itself is ‘not a thing’ to be seen but medium/wire/default canvas / picture-tube/channel. Changes or distortions on electromagnetic field propagate as signals to make the the world ‘visible’.

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What is most radical about Dawkins’ theory is that it reduces existence to the level of mere media- as if things exist only to  facilitate the replication and passage of information.

…………………………………………

We needed Darwin to show us that life is the gift of mechanical evolution. We needed  Dawkins to tell us that neither individuals nor species but  replicators serve as the hot iron to bear the blind blows  of  evolutionary hammer.

 

…………………………………………

In Dawkins’s theory, very little difference exists between humans and machines, animals and ideologies, insects and internet memes— all are just containers of some replicators.

 

…………………………………………

In Dawkins’s theory, man is just one of many potential host media for transmission and reproduction of “content”.

 

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We are the part of a memetic-wilderness called ‘existence’. Existence is a part of a greater memetic-wilderness called ‘reality’. Reality is a part of a magnificent   remoteness  called  ‘mathelogical  relationship between quantum probabilities/ pointer states.’ If Max Tegmark is right, we are just conscious parts of a huge mathematical structure existing on its own and thereby staying immune to memes.

 

…………………………………………

 

“Evolutionism is the central, inclusive, organizing outlook of anthropology, comparable in its theoretical power to evolutionism in biology.”
–Marshall Sahlins

…………………………………………
“All life evolves by the differential survival of replicating entities.”
–Richard Dawkins

…………………………………………

 

The very reality, we belong to and constantly interact with, itself consists of our own memes. The fact is in line with ‘quantummechanically participatory universe’ in which we ourselves build reality with yes-no questions.

…………………………………………

People kept on practicing alchemy until our model of reality included ‘atoms’. When our model of reality included the relational meme E=Mc2,  we couldn’t help splitting atoms to steal its energy. Thus, the very memes we use to describe reality shape our futurity.

…………………………………………

Life is the enterprise to explore the vistas of  existence (something projected but still embedded in abstract reality).

……………………………………..

Life is a small  part of existence. Existence itself  is just a small part of reality. Reality itself might just be a part of quantum probabilistic  landscape extended infinitely. The landscape , if Max Tegmark is right, is an eternal mathematical structure existing on its own.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

‘Not how the world is, is the mystical, but that it is.’

-Wittgenstein

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“Not why the world and life exist, is  alarmingly arousing, but that both exist at all instead of nothingness. Isn’t it crazy to take such items ( unavailable even in Amazon or Flip kart) for granted?”

-Meme Updater

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“What is wild cannot be bought or sold, borrowed or copied. It is. Unmistakeable, unforgettable, unshamable, elemental as earth and ice, water, fire and air, a quintessence, pure spirit, resolving into no constituents.”
-Jay Griffiths
……………………………………..

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There’s no better enjoyment than existence itself.

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“Existence is the juiciest fruit with the hardest rind. Knowledge is the sharpest knife to peel it.”

-Meme Updater( wondernpeculate.org)

…………………………………………
“The deep heart of existence beat forever like a boy’s.”
-ALFRED TENNYSON
…………………………………………

 

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“Almost nothing material is needed for a happy life, for he who has understood existence.”

– Marcus Aurelius

…………………………………………

Existence is a signal or inhomogeneity in some homogenous medium.

—————————————–

The interface between existence and non-existence is either like a virtual particle, or like a probability wave.
—————————————–
Nothing actually “exists.”

—————————————–
“Existence ” is really a shorthand we use for a pattern that interests us or a pattern we’ve evolved to be sensitive to.

—————————————–
The boundary between existence and non-existence is simply a construct of the mind, not of nature.

—————————————–

Boundary conditions violate a theory of everything.

—————————————–

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“Existence is illusory and it is eternal.”

-Albert Camus

…………………………………………

“This heart within me I can feel, and I judge that it exists. This world I can touch, and I likewise judge that it exists. There ends all my knowledge, and the rest is construction. For if I try to seize this self of which I feel sure, if I try to define and to summarize it, it is nothing but water slipping through my fingers. I can sketch one by one all the aspects it is able to assume, all those likewise that have been attributed to it, this upbringing, this origin, this ardor or these silences, this nobility or this vileness. But aspects cannot be added up.”

-Albert Camus

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“Creating is living doubly. The groping, anxious quest of a Proust, his meticulous collecting of flowers, of wallpapers, and of anxieties, signifies nothing else.”
-Albert Camus

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We are imprisoned in the dark den of existence. Speculations are the breaches to peep at REALITY.


“Someday surely we will see the principle underlying existence as so simple, so beautiful, so compelling that we will all say to each other, ‘How could we all have been so stupid for so long?’”

  • John Wheeler

We still haven’t been omniscient. Our existence is still a mystery to us. We are still too childish to make any existential comment.


Everything is a kind of existential observatory.


…………………………………………
Who will wonder about the wonderful mystery we are part of , if not our kids?

…………………………………………
We need imaginary models to explain the mystery we are part of. Without such imaginary models we can’t touch or tackle or tame or even talk about this mystery. Today’s contradictory models are actually different facets of future’s wider models.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Existence is a dark den. Assumptions are the breaches to peep through. Standard model is the most practical  assumption hitherto.
…………………………………………
Reality is stranger than fiction. Cutting edge scientific ansatzs are queerer than our weirdest fairy tales and can boost our kids’ imaginative power.
…………………………………………
“THERE ARE ONLY TWO WAYS TO LIVE YOUR LIFE. ONE IS AS THOUGH NOTHING IS A MIRACLE. THE OTHER IS AS THOUGH EVERYTHING IS A MIRACLE.” – ALBERT EINSTEIN ………………………………………… “BELIEVING AS I DO THAT MAN IN THE DISTANT FUTURE WILL BE A FAR MORE PERFECT CREATURE THAN HE NOW IS, IT IS AN INTOLERABLE THOUGHT THAT HE AND ALL OTHER SENTIENT BEINGS ARE DOOMED TO COMPLETE ANNIHILATION AFTER SUCH LONG-CONTINUED SLOW PROGRESS. WHAT CAN WE DO? WHAT IF WE CHALLENGE THE ASSUMPTION OF INTELLIGENCE HAVING NO INFLUENCE ON THE FUTURE? WHAT IF LIFE AND INTELLIGENCE COULD HAVE INFLUENCE ON THE FUTURE OF THE COSMOS?” -DARWIN’S REACTION TO THE HEAT DEATH OF THE UNIVERSE.

 

 

…………………………………………

“Nature is self-existent. She produces everything. Contains within herself he cause of everything. Her motion is a necessary consequence of her existence. Within herself she contains the remedies for all those who are patiently willing to investigate her laws.”

– Baron D’Holbach

…………………………………………

It is our sapiential duty to unfetter our fate from cruelly indifferent natural laws.

……………………………………..
“In the nineteenth century, the novel was where you went to get your serious reflections and questionings about life. You’d go to Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky. Nowadays, of course, you know the scientists actually tell much more about such issues than you would ever get from novelists.”
-Douglas

……………………………………..

“Someday surely we will see the principle underlying existence as so simple, so beautiful, so compelling that we will all say to each other, ‘How could we all have been so stupid for so long?’”

  • John Wheeler

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“Accepting the absurdity of everything around us is one step, a necessary experience: it should not become a dead end. It arouses a revolt that can become fruitful.”

-Albert Camus

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“The atoms of our bodies are traceable to stars that manufactured them in their cores and exploded these enriched ingredients across our galaxy, billions of years ago. For this reason, we are biologically connected to every other living thing in the world. We are chemically connected to all molecules on Earth. And we are atomically connected to all atoms in the universe. We are not figuratively, but literally stardust.”
– Neil deGrasse Tyson

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“Literally the stuff of which we’re made came from the deep interior of stars that exploded, and we evolved by the very same laws and rules that the rest of the universe evolves by.” – Brian Greene

The pyramid of intelligence rises from data to
information to knowledge to wisdom.
To be educated is to not exercise one
without the others.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

“I am assured that this ignorance explains everything and that this darkness is my light.”
-Albert Camus

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“Beginning to think is beginning to be undermined. Society has but little connection with such beginnings.”
-Albert Camus

…………………………………………


“There is no longer a single idea explaining everything, but an infinite number of essences giving a meaning to an infinite number of objects. The world comes to a stop, but also lights up.”
-Albert Camus

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“Since we’re all going to die, it’s obvious that when and how don’t matter.”

-Albert Camus

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“Man is something that shall be overcome. Man is a rope,tied between beast and overman — a rope over an abyss. What is great in man is that he is a bridge and not an end.”

  • Friedrich Nietzsche

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“Our world is not wholly a matter of inference. There are things that we know without asking the opinion of men of science. If you are too hot or too cold, you can be perfectly aware of this fact without asking the physicist what heat and cold consist of. … We may give the name ‘data’ to all the things of which we are aware without inference.” – Bertrand Russell

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The pyramid of intelligence rises from data to information to knowledge to wisdom. To be educated is to not exercise one without the others.


Matter can exist in different states. The more physically-distinct material states there are, the more encodable information.


Information is a measurable objective property of the physical universe.
……………………………………..
If an atom can exist in one of two energy states, then it encodes one binary bit of information (0 or 1).
……………………………………..
Information is not a subjective human thing.
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The total amount of information encoded in the whole universe is vast.
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To understand is to translate between the data, the discussions and the math — three ways of representing the world.
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When we stop learning, we belong to  the walking dead.

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“I believe that just as Nature has created men with different faces, so she has created them with different intellects and imaginations. Wherefrom it comes that each man leads himself according to his own intellect and imagination.”

-Seneca

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“And truly he who should be so wise to understand the times and situations, and to adapt to them, would have good fortune at all times or would always avert bad fortune, and it would come true that the wise command to the stars and fates.”

-Machiavelli

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“When I choose the overview, I miss most of the details. When I go closer to observe details, I lose sight of the whole.”
– Freeman Patterson

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Too much specialization stifles creativity.
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Fragmented disciplines can’t explain world’s messy complexity.
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Progress demands martyrdom.

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Genius thrived in the Renaissance because of creation and dissemination of knowledge.
……………………………………….
The pyramid of intelligence rises from
data to information to knowledge to wisdom. To be educated is to not exercise one without the others.

Asymptotic freedom causes interactions between fundamental particles to become asymptotically weaker as the energy scale increases and the corresponding length scale decreases.
……………………………………..
Infinity is not a number. Infinity is an idea.
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The bigger the number, the less number-like it is. It becomes asymptotically less and less meaningful and countable.
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The bigger the number, the less number-like it is.
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There’s no absolute cut-off point between ‘nothing’ and ‘something’, ‘nonlife’ and ‘life’, ‘logic’ and ‘existence’ or ‘physics’ and ‘biology’.
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Any distinctive feature of our universe may experience a gradual dissipation in meaning, realizability, countability, and utility.
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The body along with its extensions like neurons, brain and mind gave birth to math. Math feels perfect because of the evolution of our brains, language, and cultural abstractions from such inescapable concrete embodiment.
……………………………………..
Math, as a language, is a continuation of the evolution of the structure of the universe. Thus it is finely tuned to the universe.
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Since we are made of the stuff that our math describes, our math feels infallible.
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Water is wet because covalent bonding with a single oxygen atom reduces electropositive hydrogen’s quantum locational uncertainty and its momentum increases to respond to another molecule’s electronegative oxygen atom.
…………………………………………
H2O is a liquid at normal conditions when H2S(even though heavier) is a gas.
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Water is a chemical substance. Its chemical formula, H20, tells us that one molecule of water is comprised of 2 atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen bonded together.
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Culture is a tangled hairball of almost invisible threads of genes, memes and temes.

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We are more dependent than ever on state infrastructure. Knowledge is now held not by individuals, but by groups and institutions. We should remember that such interconnected networks are more fragile than isolated systems. …………………………………………

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Our instinctive virtues and vices are actually autonomous algorithms (mechanistically blind evolutionary plugins) that help us survive in brutally   indifferent Darwinian struggle.

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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

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Experimental discovery of gravitational waves (ripples in spacetime) implies that

General Relativity’s curved-spacetime model is not far from the fact.

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In general relativity, our universe is four-dimensional! 3 space dimensions and 1 time dimension! On two-dimensional paper, vertically both time and one space dimension are assumed! One space dimension is assumed to extend horizontally! The rest space dimension is excluded! This method simplifies our intuition about dimensions!

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Since quantum theory’s  wave-particle duality applies to all quanta,  gravitational waves (ripples in spacetime) must have a particle analogue. This hypothetical (not imaginary but  mathematically / theoretically predicted) particle is called ‘graviton’ in Standard Model.

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If two massive black holes inspiral and merge into a single but totally less massive black hole, the remaining several solar masses convert into pure energy obeying E = mc²  and travel through space at the speed of light in all directions in the form of gravitational waves.

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Since momentum equals mass times velocity, gravitational waves (with  zero rest mass and non-zero momenta) move at the speed of light just like a photon!

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Equations  can be the handiest descriptions of  the Universe, only if their predictions always  match with physical observations.

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Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle doesn’t allow us to measure below 10^−35 meters or 10^−44 seconds or   above 10^19 GeV. On this smallest(Planck) scale, space and time are always randomly fluctuating just like the initial moments of the big bang. Since individual Planck-sized regions either expand or contract with equal likelihood, we get a smooth large-scale spacetime.

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Einstein’s special relativity is called `Euclidean Relativity’.

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Up to Newton’s time, we had been treating ourselves as  localized lumps of mass-energy moving about in space over time. Einstein’s special relativity first assumed us as  long and narrow 4-dimensional tubes, branched with similar other tubes (manifested as our contacts with other objects,  people, consuming food, and excretions) at various points. 

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In Einstein’s relativity, birth is nothing but branching out from our mother-tube.

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In Einstein’s relativity, death  is nothing but our tube’s diffusion into many smaller tubes.

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In Einstein’s  general theory of relativity, gravity is a change in the geometry of spacetime near where 4-dimensional  tubes are present.

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Since the geometry of spacetime can change even in empty space, reality is more than 4-dimensional tubes. We need quantum mechanics to identity this extra ‘thing’ with fucctuaing quantum fields obeying Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

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Einstein’s special relativity ( that describes mass as curled up energy) has fused space and time into a four-dimensional “space”  called Minkowski spacetime.

His general relativity ( that describes gravity not as a force but as a spacetime  curvature ) treats this ‘elastic spacetime’ not as a passive background but as an active ingredient of reality.

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The relationship between circular and hyperbolic rotations  involves an imaginary number ( the square root of −1).

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If special relativity’s  time dimension is multiplied by  the square root of −1, Minkowski ‘spacetime’ turns  into a four-dimensional Euclidean ‘space’. 

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…………………………………………People of ancient Egypt and Greece speculated on the cyclic unity of time/existence/universe which never disappears but perpetually changes form to renew or flow back into itself.

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In Hinduism, ‘kalpa’ represents the repetitive cycles of time.

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The oldest-known ouroboros ( ‘tail-devourer’ in Greek)  on the golden shrine of Tutankhamen witnesses the fact that ancient Egyptians tried to  imagine time as a series of repetitive cycles, instead of something linear and constantly evolving.

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The flooding of the Nile and the journey of the sun made ancient Egyptians imagine  time as a series of repetitive cycles.

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‘One is All, and by it All, and for it All and if it does not contain All, then All is Nothing’.

– From ancient Egyptian papyrus

(Credit: Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin)

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The ouroboros is comparable to the Chinese yin and yang, depicting the harmony of contrary forces.

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People who quarrel about whether 

parallel lines intersect or not actually mistake a specific model for reality itself.

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Geometrical lines are mathematical memes/maps/models/abstractions 

of straight paths in the Universe. 

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In Euclidean model/geometry, infinitely extended parallel lines do not intersect. 

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In the memetic model of Lobachevski (hyperbolic or doubly-curved surface that resembles the shape of a saddle- convex  along one axis, and concave along the other), infinitely extended parallel lines intersect at one point. 

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In the geometry of Riemann (spherical surfaces), infinitely extended parallel lines cross twice.

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The number of intersections between infinitely extended parallel lines varies with the complexity/variety of  curved space geometries. 

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Both Euclidean and non-Euclidean   geometries are just models of the

observable Universe. 

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Maps/models/memetic narratives   characterize neither Universe nor reality.

……………………………………..

Maps/models/memes do not

constitute properties of reality/ Universe.

……………………………………..

The Universe/reality  is far more

complex than any model of it.

……………………………………..

Since reality  is infinitely more complex than any of its model, scientific

research will never end as long as this reality persists allowing the universe to exist. 

……………………………………..


Quantum field theory accounts for everything in the Universe except gravity. On the other hand, General Relativity explains the relationship between matter/energy and space/time, and describes what we experience as gravitation.
…………………………………………
Despite having nothing to do with light, gravitational waves travel at the speed of light. The speed of anything in motion is determined by the same things: its energy, momentum, and rest mass. Gravitational waves, like any form of radiation, have zero rest mass and yet have finite energies and momenta, meaning that they have no option: they must always move at the speed of light.

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The Earth is not gravitationally attracted to where the Sun is right now, but rather where the Sun was 8 minutes and 20 seconds ago.

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When a mass moves through a region of curved space, it will experience an acceleration owing to the curved space it inhabits. It also experiences an additional effect due to its velocity as it moves through a constantly changing spatial curvature. These two effects cause deviational changes from Newton’s gravity.

…………………………………………
The finite speed of gravity causes a change in the gravitational field that departs from Newton’s instantaneous change. It’s this tiny deviation that allowed us to first test whether Newton’s “infinite speed” or Einstein’s “light speed of gravity” matched the physics of our Universe.

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The speed of gravity should equal the speed of light so long as both gravitational waves and photons have no rest mass associated with them.

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“The black holes of nature are the most perfect macroscopic objects there are in the universe: the only elements in their construction are our concepts of space and time.”

  •  Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

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“A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life.”

 ― Charles Darwin

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We are savouring a universe having a derived quantity called Existence having Einsteinian/stringy dimensions!

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Everything in the universe has dimension, thereby it has presence.

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“Until we have firm understanding of the flow of time, or incontrovertible evidence that it is indeed an illusion, then we will not know who we are, or what part we are playing in the great cosmic drama.”

  • Paul Davies

Space is the condition for the existence of individual things.Time is the condition for the existence of individual events.


Space and time can be seen as emergent from a holographic worldview beyond the standard model.
…………………………………………
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Time might be an illusion.
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Spatiotemporal continuum might just be an imaginary cognitive tool.
…………………………………………
Life is a braid in spacetime. …………………………………………

When you ask for my present address, you’re not really asking about the nature of spatiotemporal geometry, but rather about my relative location in it.

…………………………………………

We can think of space as a static stage where things change over time, or as an unchanging four-dimensional place called spacetime without any objective past or future. …………………………………………

We can think of the earth as an unchanging spiral shape in spacetime. …………………………………………

In static spacetime, the future is just as real as the past.

………………………………………… Spacetime as well as our entire physical reality might be a purely mathematical structure in the sense that it has no properties at all except mathematical properties, for example the number four, its number of dimensions. ………………………………………… Spacetime is an abstract, immutable mathematical structure existing outside of our familiar space and time.

…………………………………………
In astronomy, space is the vast three-dimensional region that begins where the earth’s atmosphere ends.
…………………………………………
According to Harvard University physicists Daniel Jafferis and Ping Gao, wormholes can actually exist, but moving through them would be too slow to  be ideal for humans.
…………………………………………

If wormhole travel is possible, figuring out a way to have light travel through wormholes could answer some questions about quantum gravity or black hole information problem.
…………………………………………
Wormholes  form between two black holes that connect at a quantum level. Scientists could retrieve information about black holes from the transmission of light through the wormhole.

…………………………………………

According to Einstein’s general theory of relativity,  wormholes can  connect different points billion light years apart, different points in time, or different universes.

…………………………………………

Black holes are entangled on a quantum level — and therefore the wormhole travel is not a shortcut .
…………………………………………
Since the wormhole is traversable, information could be extracted from a black hole.
…………………………………………
Negative energy is  inconsistent with quantum gravity. The  need for negative energy doesn’t allow to formulate traversable wormholes.
Jafferis has overcome this using quantum field theory tools.
…………………………………………
Since life is a  story by nature, we should ‘let it flow’ into several storylines simultaneously. It should be superposed like a quantum wave.
…………………………………………
Using entanglement to construct  space-time might  reconcile  quantum mechanics and general relativity.
…………………………………………
Gravity holding together the universe may not be fundamental, but arise from something else: quantum entanglement.
…………………………………………
“Quantum pair creation,” allows two particles to emerge from the vacuum. An electric field can catch such a pair of particles before they disappear back into the vacuum. Once extracted, these particles are considered entangled.
…………………………………………
Entanglement involves two particles, each occupying  superposition i.e. multiple states at once. Neither has a definite state until one is measured, causing the other particle to instantly assume a corresponding state, even if they reside on opposite ends of the universe.In string theory, the creation of two entangled particles simultaneously creates  a wormhole — a tunnel through space-time held together by gravity. Such a wormhole enables particles to communicate instantaneously.

…………………………………………
Since the creation of quarks simultaneously creates a wormhole, gravity might be a translation of  entanglement. The geometry, or bending, of the universe as described by classical gravity, may be a nickname for entanglement  between pairs of particles strung together by tunneling wormholes.

…………………………………………
When entangled black holes  are pulled apart, we get a wormhole — a tunnel through space-time. String theory’s holographic duality allows the emergene of gravity(spacetime curvature)  in the fifth dimension from entangled quarks in the fourth.We may  wonder what happens if some of this entanglement is lost.
…………………………………………
Despite being  a two-dimensional object, a  hologram contains all the information necessary to represent a three-dimensional view.
…………………………………………
The holographic duality allows the emergene of a more complex dimension from the next lowest dimension.
…………………………………………
Nonlocal quantum entanglement originates outside of or beyond 4D spacetime.
…………………………………………

“Amplituhedron” (quantum field theory) by Arkani-Hamed and Trnka allows the emergene of  locality from nonlocality.
…………………………………………

Since only spacetime can move faster than the speed of light, a wormhole might allow the emergene of  entanglement.
…………………………………………
Gravity/geometry in n+1 dimensions emerges from entanglement in n dimensions.
…………………………………………
AdS/CFT  is a duality between quantum gravity in terms of string theory and quantum field theory.
…………………………………………

Spacetime foam can be modeled as  a gas of virtual wormholes.
…………………………………………
Wormholes violate the null energy condition which requires the presence of an exotic (which does not exist in lab experiments) matter.
…………………………………………
A coherent set of virtual wormholes may work as an actual wormhole.
…………………………………………
Virtual wormholes diminish the energy density of zero-point fluctuations (i.e., the vacuum energy density).
…………………………………………

A black hole is a region of space so dense that nothing (even light) can escape its gravitational pull, and   most  parameters(space, time,etc) that define our reality lose all meaning.
…………………………………………

To see M87(a black hole at the heart of a galaxy at a 55 million light-years distant), we need a telescope as big as Earth itself. Computer scientist Katherine Bouman’s algorithm  allowed multiple radio telescopes around the globe to focus on the target simultaneously to get the first ever picture of a black hole.

 
…………………………………………
Einstein described gravity not as a force of attraction between masses (Isaac Newton’s view) but as a warping of space-time.
…………………………………………

 
Time  passes more slowly near a strong gravitational field.

 
…………………………………………

 
If matter become too dense, it would  collapse into a black hole.
…………………………………………
The in-falling material reaches such high speeds that it forms a hot, glowing disc — a blazing doughnut around M87.
…………………………………………

To be observable, a “distance” has to have a length of 10^-35 meter.
Time is “observable” as soon as it leaves a “zero” value.
A “volume” of “space”, which is “distances in all directions”, has to have a diameter of 10^-35 meter to be “observable”.
Before reaching a volume with a diameter of 10^-35 meter , only “distances-in-one-direction” or surface was rotating.
Space and time we inhabit, including ourselves, might be nothing more than  a two-dimensional hologram.
……………………………………..

Einstein’s space and time are inseparable and exist as an imaginary   structure called ‘spacetime’.
……………………………………..

Einstein’s general relativity states that spacetime is warped by energy (mostly mass-energy in the disguise of massive objects )and that gravity is a result of this warping.

……………………………………..
Philosophical speculations on blackholes or big bang singularities  may lead to breakthroughs in quantum computing by discovering proper methods of describing time on these scales.

……………………………………..
Though gavity operates directly on the particles composing us, we can detect it only when the many particles composing two bodies attract each other.

……………………………………..
Some quantum gravity physicists think of gravity as an emergent byproduct of quantum entanglement.
…………………………………………

 

 

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

“But we may fairly say that they alone are engaged in the true duties of life who shall wish to have Zeno, Pythagoras, Democritus, and all the other high priests of liberal studies, and Aristotle and Theophrastus, as their most intimate friends every day. No one of these will be “not at home,” no one of these will fail to have his visitor leave more happy and more devoted to himself than when he came, no one of these will allow anyone to leave him with empty hands; all mortals can meet with them by night or by day.

 

No one of these will force you to die, but all will teach you how to die; no one of these will wear out your years, but each will add his own years to yours; conversations with no one of these will bring you peril, the friendship of none will endanger your life, the courting of none will tax your purse. From them you will take whatever you wish; it will be no fault of theirs if you do not draw the utmost that you can desire. What happiness, what a fair old age awaits him who has offered himself as a client to these! He will have friends from whom he may seek counsel on matters great and small, whom he may consult every day about himself, from whom he may hear truth without insult, praise without flattery, and after whose likeness he may fashion himself.

 

We are wont to say that it was not in our power to choose the parents who fell to our lot, that they have been given to men by chance; yet we may be the sons of whomsoever we will. Households there are of noblest intellects; choose the one into which you wish to be adopted; you will inherit not merely their name, but even their property, which there will be no need to guard in a mean or niggardly spirit; the more persons you share it with, the greater it will become. These will open to you the path to immortality, and will raise you to a height from which no one is cast down. This is the only way of prolonging mortality—nay, of turning it into immortality. Honours, monuments, all that ambition has commanded by decrees or reared in works of stone, quickly sink to ruin; there is nothing that the lapse of time does not tear down and remove. But the works which philosophy has consecrated cannot be harmed; no age will destroy them, no age reduce them; the following and each succeeding age will but increase the reverence for them, since envy works upon what is close at hand, and things that are far off we are more free to admire. The life of the philosopher, therefore, has wide range, and he is not confined by the same bounds that shut others in. He alone is freed from the limitations of the human race; all ages serve him as if a god. Has some time passed by? This he embraces by recollection. Is time present? This he uses. Is it still to come? This he anticipates. He makes his life long by combining all times into one.

 

But those who forget the past, neglect the present, and fear for the future have a life that is very brief and troubled; when they have reached the end of it, the poor wretches perceive too late that for such a long while they have been busied in doing nothing.”

– Seneca

…………………………………………

Young Einstein dared to waste time by reading Kant and attending University lectures only for pleasure. After a few years, he wrote three separate articles laying foundations for most useful(atomic theory), most beautiful (relativity)and most unworldly(quantum mechanics) scientific theories.

…………………………………….


“We get into the habit of living before acquiring the habit of thinking.”

-Albert Camus

…………………………………………

 

 

Reality, attributes, existence,   being , becoming, ultimate world stuff, ultimate context, etc.  still belong to philosophy not science. …………………………………….. Even when practically inescapable, we can at least philosophically try to enjoy life’s existential contingency and absurdity. Again a practical approach! ……………………………………..

…………………………………………

“All scientific thinking is just a derivative and rigidified form of philosophical
thinking. Philosophy never arises from or through science. Philosophy can never
belong to the same order as the sciences. It belongs to a higher order, and not just
“logically” as it were or in a table of the system of sciences. Philosophy stands in a
completely different domain and rank of spiritual Dasein.”
–Martin Heidegger

…………………………………………


“There is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy.”
-Albert Camus

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
“A novel is never anything but a philosophy put into images.”

-Albert Camus

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

We still wonder about our  own position in the spectrum of existence.

……………………………………..

Man is a contextualizing creature.
……………………………………..

Man attempts to understand himself with reference to within and without.
……………………………………..

A quest for meaning sets apart man from other biological species.

……………………………………..
Man is not content with what he is; instead he strives towards “what he can be” by exploiting  the natural “cause-effect” axiom to its full utility.

……………………………………..

Human restlessness for meaning ,at least in part, manifests itself as a journey from primordial caves to modern skyscrapers.
……………………………………..
Modern epistemological approaches like  positivism, scepticism, deconstruction, scientism, postmodernism, etc.   have reduced traditional phenomenological context of reality to a psychological one.
……………………………………..

The essence of meaning has gradually been lost to the definitions of meaning.
……………………………………..
In modern epistemologies , reality is  replaced by theory, map by territory and  ‘being’ by ‘attribute’.
……………………………………..

In modern epistemologies , nature in its entirety is a mere symbol.

…………………………………………
Every epiphenomenon happening in the membrane of space time reminds us of symbolic noumenon.

……………………………………..
Noumenon is something that exists independently of human sense. Phenomenon is an object of the senses.
……………………………………..

……………………………………..
“We rise from the conception of form to an understanding of the forces which gave rise to it”.

  • Wentworth Thompson
    …………………………………………

Philosophy is too important to be left to the philosophers.


It’s actually one’s inner rebel that needs mystery to go beyond life’s mechanical burdens and hence bothers on the nature of self and existence.
—————————————–
“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.” -Stephen Hawking


………………………………………
We should wonder how much in number and peculiarity can be ideas emerging from philosophy, science and mathematics.

…………………………………………

“Whatever exists as the ultimate, uncaused reality is neither probable nor improbable. It just is.”

 
Keith Parsons
 

……………………………………..

We are such forms of disequilibrium who need  the meaning (why and what ) of their own origin.

……………………………………..

With a large enough chance, any unlikely thing is likely to happen.

……………………………………..

A jackpot winner shouldn’t wonder why she won.

……………………………………..
Helio-centrism and Darwinism  removed humans from the physical center of their universe.

……………………………………..

One should know about physics,  cosmology, biology and other sciences  to construct a coherent worldview.

……………………………………..

Science is the only cognitive authority in the world today.

……………………………………..

No matter how well confirmed scientific  theories they are always provisional—open to change in light of new evidence.

……………………………………..

Theoretical musings and introspection are no substitute for hard-won empirical evidence.

……………………………………..

Science is daily confirmed by the wonders of the technology it spawns.

……………………………………..

If we need the best knowledge of ourselves and our world that we have, out best choice would be the knowledge provided by modern science.

……………………………………..

Both cosmology and biology  have important things to say about the meaning of life.

……………………………………..

What we know shouldn’t be confused with what we do not know.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

Our universe began about 13.81 billion years ago. The discovery is  a testimony to the power of science.

…………………………………………

Sometimes we believe without any proof just to comfort and console ourselves.
……………………………………..

“The hardest thing to explain is the glaringly evident which everybody has decided not to see.” ― Ayn Rand

……………………………………..

“The human mind evolved to believe in the gods. It did not evolve to believe in biology. ”

– Edward Wilson

Liberalism is the sum total of democracy, free markets, human rights and social responsibility.
…………………………………………
Supporters of Trump and Brexit think that liberalism should stop at the border.
……………………………………..
Capitalism is an engine of change.
 
……………………………………..
Capitalism  has produced better art and culture.
 
…………………………………….

Socioeconomic politics has been coupled to a fast changing and hence unpredictable data-driven technology.
Government no longer leads the country, but merely manages it.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………
When people discovered/acknowledged ignorance, scientific road to progress opened.
…………………………………………
Nowadays thinkers, politicians and even economists want to replace GDP with GDH – gross domestic happiness. After all, production is only the means, not the end.

…………………………………………
China’s domestic politics is not liberal.
…………………………………………
China pretends to be liberal just to  invite free trade and international cooperation.
…………………………………………
Today’s Russia has no  political ideology. By manufacturing crises, an oligarchy survives here.

…………………………………………

Russia is one of the most unequal countries in the world.

…………………………………………

Liberalism seems to be the last resort to any social system.

…………………………………………

A toiling mob can at least exercise their worth ,if not heroism, via predictable local nationalist and supernatural beliefs! Uncertain scientific liberalism is alien to them. Without pampering science memes, politicians can’t fully politicize the story of liberalism !

……………………………………

Human happiness depends less on objective conditions and more on subjective expectations.

…………………………………………

Donald Trump blended American isolationism with a promise to ‘Make America Great Again’.

…………………………………………

Nostalgic memes  associated with nations or supernatural myths are flaring in India, USA and UK. Without pampering science memes, politicians can’t fully politicize the story of liberalism!

…………………………………………

According to Obama, most humans never enjoyed greater peace or prosperity than they did under the twenty-first century liberalism!

…………………………………………

For the first time in history, infectious diseases kill fewer people than old age, famine kills fewer people than obesity, and violence kills fewer people than accidents.

…………………………………………

Liberalism reconciled the proletariat with the bourgeoisie, the faithful with the atheists, the natives with the immigrants, and the Europeans with the Asians by promising everybody a larger slice of the pie.

…………………………………………

Poltical liberalism prefers constitutional changes to revolution.

…………………………………………

Economical liberalism represents the  free competition in a self-regulating market.

…………………………………………

With a constantly growing pie,Liberalism can promise everybody a larger slice of the pie. It is an unfortunate paradox that the same unbriddled economic growth invites ecological and technological disruption.We need an updated story for the world.

…………………………………………

Political memes of futurity might incorporate artificial intelligence, Big Data algorithms and bioengineering into a new meaningful narrative.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

The prospect of mass unemployment leaves nobody indifferent.

…………………………………………

——-
Masses suspect that most fashionable terms – globalisation, blockchain, genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, machine learning are not about them.
…………………………………………
Though the liberal story was the story of ordinary people,  masses fear irrelevance.

…………………………………………

————-
Our generation demands a firm ethical ground in an algorithm-dictated world suspecting all supernatural myths and social ideologies.

…………………………………………

After fascism and communism collapsed, now liberalism is losing credibility.
…………………………………………

The merger of infotech and biotech might oppose the welfare state ( a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.).

…………………………………………

Mankinds are a story by nature. We think in stories rather than in facts, numbers or equations.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

To exist is to maintain a story. Before artificial intelligence and biotechnology fall in the invisible hand of the market we have to decide about the meaning of life to invent our story – our cultural shelter.

…………………………………………

Liberalism tells us to protect human rights, to grant everybody the vote, to establish free markets, and to let individuals, ideas and goods move throughout the world as easily as possible.

…………………………………………

Feudalism, monarchism and traditional supernaturalism were not suitable for steam engines, railroads and electricity. Humankind had to develop new models – liberal democracies, communist dictatorships and fascist regimes. The experiment is not yet over.

…………………………………………

The future economy might make us irrelevant even as consumers! Web page designers cater to the taste of the Google search algorithm rather than to the taste of any human being!

…………………………………………

Taking care of a child is the most important and challenging job in the world!
…………………………………………

The model of universal basic income focuses on providing for people’s basic needs and protecting their social status and self-worth.

…………………………………………

UBI ( universal basic income) proposes that governments tax the billionaires and corporations controlling the algorithms and robots, and use the money to provide every person with a generous stipend covering his or her basic needs. This will cushion the poor against job loss and economic dislocation, while protecting the rich from populist rage.

…………………………………………

Universal basic income is the capitalist paradise! Universal basic services  is the communist paradise!

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

In politics, liberalism believes that the voter’s feelings matter most. In economics, liberalism maintains that the customer decides everything. In personal matters, liberalism encourages people to listen to themselves  while respecting the liberties of others.

…………………………………………

‘There is no such thing as society. There is [a] living tapestry of men and women … and the quality of our lives will depend upon how much each of us is prepared to take responsibility for ourselves.’ –

Thatcher (First woman prime minister)

…………………………………………

Democracy assumes that an illiterate maid also has free will, hence on election day her feelings – represented by her vote – count just as much as anybody else’s.

…………………………………………

Just as the ancient villagers of the Nile Basin redirected some of their loyalty from local clans to a much bigger kingdom that was able to restrain the dangerous river, so in the nuclear age a global community gradually developed over and above the various nations, because only such a community could restrain the nuclear demon.

…………………………………………

Our best scientific estimates indicate that unless we cut the emission of greenhouse gasses in the next twenty years, average global temperatures will increase by more than 2°C, 8 resulting in expanding deserts, disappearing ice caps, rising oceans and more frequent extreme weather events such as hurricanes and typhoons. These changes in turn will disrupt agricultural production, inundate cities, make much of the world uninhabitable, and send hundreds of millions of refugees in search of new homes. Since there is no national answer to the problem of global warming, some nationalist politicians prefer to believe the problem does not exist.

…………………………………………

Existing societies, even in the past,  were never  the right framework to manage the most important challenges of the age. …………………………………………

We now have a global ecology, a global economy and a global science – but we are still stuck with only national politics.

…………………………………………

Human power depends on mass cooperation and mass cooperation depends on manufacturing mass identities. So we should be proud of our species to have a united planet.
…………………………………………

Nuclear war, ecological collapse and technological disruption are global problems. But nationalism and supernaturalism still divide our human civilisation into different hostile camps.

…………………………………………

The collision between global problems and local identities besets the greatest multicultural experiment on the planet – the European Union.

…………………………………………

Terrorism, a psychological hijacking of the private imagination of millions of individuals, is now globally politicized.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Einstein’s thought experiments with imaginary scenarios led to his revolutionary ideas about space and time.
…………………………………………


…………………………………………

……………………………………..
Ideas are survival tools like hammers and knives invented by social groups of individuals to combat existential paradoxes like storms, floods, earthquakes, fire, hunger, pain, battles, treachery , absurdity, meaninglessness, internal loneliness, etc.

…………………………………………
It is not any platonic  logic but  human need that spawns ideas.
…………………………………………
Ideas are not immutable  and they need to adapt to survive.

…………………………………………
Both science and philosophy attempt to explain why the world is the way it is.

…………………………………………
Philosophy might be the most sublime existential instrumentalism  we can happily be the slave to.

…………………………………………
Science is an invitation to listen to a story that explains the world in a way nothing else will.

…………………………………………
There is no faith without risk . A wrong faith can destroy the meaning of one’s life. Only doubt can tackle such risks.

…………………………………………
Both language and reason are “socially constructed” and just  tools for power.
…………………………………………

For every myth there is an equal and opposite myth.

…………………………………………

Natural selection preserves  inferences that reach truth.
…………………………………………

Part of what it means to be human is to try new experiences.
…………………………………………
Truth about our human condition is subject to linguistic limitations.

…………………………………………

Too much light distracts us from minding our ultimate address -the starry space.

…………………………………………
Too much light literally clouds our view of the cosmos above.
…………………………………………
Astronomical bodies  float amid an inky and icy void the mere thought of which washes away one’s worries.

…………………………………………

Without survival concerns, we are  free to wonder. What hidden  machinery produces the perceived reality? What is the point of existence? Are we contingent or inevitable extensions of the physical universe? Perhaps we will never arrive at a conclusion no matter how much we ponder. Such ruminations remind us of the intrinsic value of staring into the cosmos by broadening our life-enriching imagination.To imagine is to liberate oneself from the limited physicality of existence.
…………………………………………
The universe’s endless expanse is a windfall prerequisite for the emergence of life.
…………………………………………

There is a certain liberation in belonging to the universe, in being insignificant or nonexistent.

…………………………………………

The mundane burden people face is but a microscopic speck in the grander scheme of things.
…………………………………………

Reminding ourselves of our trivial existence gives us solace.
…………………………………………

The rat race to pursue status and power leaves no moment to ponder the cosmos and experience its vastness. We can’t believe that it feels good to feel small,
to belong to infinity.
…………………………………………

The smoke signal using the visual spectrum  of fundamental EM field disturbance  was the oldest communication technology to transmit a message as far away as 750 kilometres in just a few hours.
……………………………………..
From bone to satellite. From smoke to internet.
……………………………………..
Internet revolution was directed more by engineers than by political parties.
…………………………………………
A blockchain is an encrypted ledger transacted and shared online.
…………………………………………
Future governments have to wait humbly for an algorithm to approve a budget or a new tax reform.
…………………………………………
Blockchain networks and cryptocurrencies like bitcoin might need a tax on information.
…………………………………………
Machine learning and robotics will change almost every line of work – from making yoghurt to teaching yoga. The better we understand the biochemical mechanisms, the better computers can become in analysing human behaviour, predicting human decisions, and replacing human drivers, bankers and lawyers.
…………………………………………
A poor villager in an underdeveloped country might come to enjoy far better healthcare via her smartphone than the richest person in the world gets today from the most advanced urban hospital.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
No remaining human job will ever be safe from the threat of future automation, because machine learning and robotics will continue to improve.
…………………………………………
Change is always stressful, and the the volatility of the job market has produced a global epidemic of stress.
…………………………………………

Yuval Noah Harari’s “Sapiens” narrates how an insignificant ape became the ruler of planet Earth. “Homo Deus” speculates about future. “21 Lessons for the 21st Century” warns everybody that the future of humanity might be decided in their absence while none will be exempt from the consequences.
…………………………………………

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..……………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………

…………………………………..

Science is daily confirmed by the wonders of the technology it spawns.

……………………………………..

If we need the best knowledge of ourselves and our world that we have, out best choice would be the knowledge provided by modern science.

……………………………………..

Both cosmology and biology  have important things to say about the meaning of life.

……………………………………..

What we know shouldn’t be confused with what we do not know.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

Our universe began about 13.81 billion years ago. The discovery is  a testimony to the power of science.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
When people discovered/acknowledged ignorance, scientific road to progress opened.
…………………………………………

……………………………………..

In an entropically dying universe, our most sacred duty is to figure out how to get out of this self-destructive trap and to spread ourselves into (naturally/artificiality born)  newer and newer universes if possible. This is feasible only in a world of maximum knowledge and maximum love.

……………………………………..

 

Whenever we assume something that exists in reality, we actually presume  a

map/meme/ model of reality. If all models are wrong, we should be ashamed to fundamentalist!

……………………………………..

 

Our memetic maps of  reality are never wrong but limited to  their area of applicability. Even Ptolemy’s geocentric astronomy helped to predict positions of the celestial bodies efficiently. Copernicus’s heliocentric model  just generalized such predictions. Newton’s gravity or Einstein’s spacetime curvature gave more and more general maps of our cosmic reality. There is no limit to such generalization until we  know the ultimate nature of reality (theory of everything ?).

 

……………………………………..

Our science teachers should expose our kids to all the  fascinating ideas (emerging from current scientific researches) solely for the sake of sparking imagination. We need scientists for the survival of our species in an indifferent , mechanical universe.

……………………………………..

Science, as well as literature, is a celebration of humanity.
……………………………………..
A man should be proud of his ability to understand the reality he belongs to.
…………………………………………

Scientific theories like big bang or evolution reject our long-cherished (often inherited ) conceits to put us in our proper place.
……………………………………..
“The history of the Universe has been summed up thusly: ‘Hydrogen is a light, odorless gas, which, given enough time, turns into people.”
-John P. Wiley Jr.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

“Science is the one human activity that is totally progressive.”

-Edwin Hubble

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

 

…………………………………………

 

Consciousness can be experienced  only from within.

 

…………………………………………

We still don’t know how quantum mechanics is related to observation.

 

…………………………………………

There are some mysteries science may never be able to solve.

…………………………………………

 

There might be no “Theory of Everything” to explain the entire universe.

…………………………………………

 

“We believe that the world is knowable: that there are simple rules governing the behavior of matter and the evolution of the universe. We affirm that there are eternal, objective, extra-historical, socially-neutral, external and universal truths. The assemblage of these truths is what we call science, and the proof of our assertion lies in the pudding of its success. Just give us enough time, and there are no problems that science cannot solve.”

-Sheldon Glashow

…………………………………………

 

………………………………………..
If the electric repulsion between protons were just a bit stronger, then our familiar atoms, and hence chemistry, and hence life itself, could not apparently exist.

…………………………………………
We might be the product of design, coincidence, multiverse or evolution.
…………………………………………

Some particular properties of the universe keep up our very existence as living, conscious beings.
…………………………………………

A man is an arrangement of dust on one small planet out of billions of trillions in a universe, which might again be one of many universes.

…………………………………………
Only a thinking man gives meaning to an otherwise nonexistent universe.
…………………………………………

No ‘right now across the universe’ exists.
…………………………………………
“Everything we do in science is conditioned by the way we look at the world and the way we look at the world is necessarily limited.”
-Marcelo Gleiser, a theoretical physicist
…………………………………………
We can never look at the universe from the “outside.”

…………………………………………
Consciousness can be experienced only from within.

…………………………………………
We still don’t know how quantum mechanics is related to observation.

…………………………………………
There are some mysteries science may never be able to solve.
…………………………………………

There might be no “Theory of Everything” to explain the entire universe.
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“We believe that the world is knowable: that there are simple rules governing the behavior of matter and the evolution of the universe. We affirm that there are eternal, objective, extra-historical, socially-neutral, external and universal truths. The assemblage of these truths is what we call science, and the proof of our assertion lies in the pudding of its success. Just give us enough time, and there are no problems that science cannot solve.”
-Sheldon Glashow
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“The unexamined life is not worth living.” – Socrates

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Science i.e. natural philosophy started with wondering about the origin and nature of the world.

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Science is an invitation to listen to a story that explains the world in a way nothing else will.

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Too much specialization stifles creativity.
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Fragmented disciplines can’t explain world’s messy complexity.
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Progress demands martyrdom.

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Genius thrived in the Renaissance because of creation and dissemination of knowledge.
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“One might say science is the sum total of our knowledge of the universe, the great library of the known, but the practice of science happens at the border between the known and the unknown. Standing on the shoulders of giants, we peer into the darkness with eyes opened not in fear, but in wonder.”

– Professor Brian Cox

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“The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious — the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science.”
— Albert Einstein
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Science works because nature is always and everywhere logical.
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“Strange structures like us exist because nature is democratic to all physical possibilities.”


Meme Updater
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Scientists’ typical  virtues like  independence, ambition and objectivity prevent them to support a mission of advancing society.
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Objectivity allows people to reduce bias when they collect and assess data.
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In the pursuit of objectivity, science shouldn’t lose its heart.
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Science is becoming more and more  socially aware, equitable and just.
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“Equipped with his five senses, man explores the universe around him and calls the adventure Science. “

  •  Edwin Powell Hubble
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    Science is the sharpest arrow in the quiver of liberalism.
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    Science sits at the intersection of three things — the data, the discussions and the math.
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    To do science is the ONE thing we can do such that by doing it everything else would be easier, if not unnecessary.
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    Kids who don’t understand science become adults who don’t understand science.
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    The first philosopher and scientist Thales first used non-mythical (water) explanations behind natural phenomena. The tradition still continues.
    Water>Atom>Fields>Strings>Holography>Entanglements> Miniature wormholes>?
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    Change (information)  in the field(reality) is quantisation(existence).The effect (transmission) is identical to measurement ( observation). Changes persist and get braided into cosmos, life and consciousness. The very process of  braiding is called ‘evolution’.
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    All branches of knowledge should be put together to take the deepest dip into reality.
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“It surprises me how disinterested we are today about things like physics, space, the universe and philosophy of our existence, our purpose, our final destination.” -Stephen Hawking

 
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The grandest existential question I can ask  is  where  I come from.
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The  entire history of the Universe  up to our existence can be written in just one sentence at the cost of data and grammar .
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Our increasing awareness of a brutal  objectivity implied by the cutting edge ‘natural philosophy’  (academically called ‘Science’) encourages us to cement life’s bonds as well as  to unfetter our fate from the cruelly indifferent natural system we belong to.
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Natural things remind us of our own   existentially objective groundedness.
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Who will wonder about the wonderful mystery we are part of , if not our kids?
We need imaginary models to explain the mystery we are part of. Without such imaginary models we can’t touch or tackle or tame or even talk about this mystery. Today’s contradictory models are actually different facets of future’s wider models.
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“Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.”

  • Carl Sagan
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Existence is a dark den. Assumptions are the breaches to peep through. Standard model is the most practical  assumption hitherto.
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Reality is stranger than fiction. Cutting edge scientific ansatzs are queerer than our weirdest fairy tales and can boost our kids’ imaginative power.
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A new theory is a new angle of looking at the world.
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Cosmology deals with the universe’s origin, structure and evolution.
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Truth is a linguistic translation of ‘the survival of interpretation’.
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Scientific theories are intellectual adventures undertaken by the smartest people on earth.
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………………………………………… “The realization that life is absurd cannot be an end, but only a beginning. This is a truth nearly all great minds have taken as their starting point.” -Albert Camus ………………………………………… …………………………………………

Change is the only constant.
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“The notion of time order is not predefined. Time does not exist out there independent of our experiments.”
-Magdalena Zych
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Perhaps chicken and egg come simultaneously because of superpositions of quantum states: before it is measured, a quantum system can be in a number of possible states at once.
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Physics at the outset is philosophy, at the core is mathematics and in between is symbolic.
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“God made the integers, all the rest is the work of man.”

  • Kronecker

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Even biological or cultural systems obtain their behaviors from the physics of the expanding universe.
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Quantum field theory accounts for everything in the Universe except gravity. On the other hand, General Relativity explains the relationship between matter/energy and space/time, and describes what we experience as gravitation.

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Gravitational potential is always
negative.
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Gravitational field is the negative derivative of the field with respect to
displacement.
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The potential being zero and the field non-zero makes sense only if a point is at an infinite distance from the source of gravity.
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Since we expend energy to
separate things against the gravitational force pulling them
together, the gravitational field has negative energy.

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If all of the positive energy in the universe equals all of the negative energy, the origin of the energy is a ‘free lunch’. We can take “zero” energy to split it into equal
amounts of positive energy and negative energy.
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All the energy in the universe started from the bigbang singlarity as heat, all the energy in the universe will end as heat(cosmic heat death).
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Emily Noether showed that conservation laws come from symmetries.
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The conservation of energy (“Energy  cannot be crested or destroyed”) , represents the time symmetry.

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Perhaps quantum fluctuations  triggered the zero energy to create
something i.e. to split into two opposite halves.
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To say “energy didn’t come from anywhere” would be to deny that “every action has an equal and opposite reaction”.

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The zero total energy of the universe includes mass as a positive contribution to energy and gravitational energy as negative.
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The Universe could have been created  from Nothing if no energy was needed in the first place.

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Perhaps the universe is really, “Much ado about nothing.”

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Our universe might be a subset of a larger reality where the rules are so  different that creating a universe of energy is a self-evident inevitability.
The amount of positive mass energy is balanced by negative gravitational  energy in the expansion of space. Since the total energy of the universe is 0, no energy was actually created.
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According to quantum field theory,  the universe is the manifestation of the potential energy of a scalar field which was concentrated in a singular point in the so called quantum vacuum,but science is silent about the origin of this scalar field.
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Einstein and George Gamow were
crossing a street, when Gamow just commented that maybe gravity could
be considered “negative” energy, in some sense.   Einstein was so
enthralled by the new idea that he stopped in the middle of the street to
mull this over.    Gamow had to stop traffic while Einstein pondered this.
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Antoine Lavoisier , the chemist,  first  stated the law of conservation of mass :
“We may lay it down as an incontestible axiom, that, in all the operations of art and nature, nothing is created; an equal quantity of matter exists both before and after the experiment; the quality and quantity of the elements remain precisely the same; and nothing takes place beyond changes and modifications in the combination of these elements.”

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Our very existence is the proof of a positive value for the total mass-energy of the universe.
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The origin of a universe with totally positive energy means a violation of the law of energy conservation. The positive mass-energy of every particle
might be cancelled by the negative potential energy of that particle’s associated gravitational field, creating what is known as the zero-energy universe .

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Within the context of general relativity, any non-zero energy density is
associated with a non-zero gravitational field, and such an attractive field, in turn, possesses a negative value for its potential energy.
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In Edward Tyron’s cosmological model, the positive mass-energy of every particle is cancelled by the negative potential energy of that particle’s associated gravitational field, creating an asymptotically “flat”  zero-energy universe .
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A quantum is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction.

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A photon is a single quantum of light referred to as light quantum. A photon is quantised EM field.

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Since energy is not a ‘thing’, we cannot say that energy is made of something.
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Energy is a property of

everything that exists.

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A photon has energy that can be transferred.
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Since energy is not a ‘thing’, it cannot be created or destroyed, but can be transformed.
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Mass is not made of anything.

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Mass is a form of energy.
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‘The energy of the interaction’(non-thing) between ‘quarks and gluons’(things/fields) is what gives protons and neutrons their mass (non-thing).

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‘The energy of the interaction’(non-thing) between ‘quarks and gluons’(things/fields) is released when stable atomic nuclei with less binding energy are produced via  fission or fusion.

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Our sun  produces energy via fusion of hydrogen(4 separate protons) into helium( a nucleus of 2 protons & 2 neutrons).

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Objects / things may have energy and mass, but they are not energy or mass.

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Physics says that energy can’t be destroyed, but it is silent about what happens to energy when the universe dies and nothing is left.

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Physics says that Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it is silent about how it came about in
the first place.
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Non-things like energy or mass cannot be created or destroyed.

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Perhaps the total energy in the universe is zero. If we take all the positive energy(carried by standard model particles except gravitons)
and add it with an equal amount of negative(gravitational) energy, we will get zero.

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A Sapiens needs just 1,500–2,500 calories per day in order to survive.
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Internal energy may be stored in a number of ways (degrees of freedom) within a substance.
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There is one energy and it can be seen as kinetic or potential or even as both at the same time.
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Potential and kinetic energies are not physically different. They are perceived by us as difererent because we see one as a function of the separation, and the other as a funcion of the velocity.In both cases the energy is proporional to the mass of both bodies.

 
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There is one energy and it can be seen as kinetic or potential or even as both at the same time.

 
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The Hamiltonian (T+U) gives us the total energy, but the Lagrangian (T-U) tells us how the energy is distributed between kinetic and potential, with a maximum when potential is low and a minimum when it is high.

 
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Happiness ( yes, meaningful one)  blesses us only when we see life in its entirety as an anthropically  worthwhile adventure. People who identify happiness with fleeting pleasant sensations stay lifelong slaves to those biochemical algorithms.

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Blind chemomechanical  algorithms can tangle themselves into incredible stuff  like  life,  organs, plants, people, etc.

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Our instinctive virtues and vices are actually autonomous algorithms (mechanistically blind evolutionary plugins) that help us survive in brutally   indifferent Darwinian struggle.

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Norman Margolus and Tommaso Toffoli coined ‘computronium’ for any “programmable matter”.

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‘Computronium’ is a theoretical arrangement of matter that is computationally  most capable for that amount of matter. Our consciousness might be a sort of ‘instant computronium state’ of our co-ordinated body. It is not binary but varies within range allowed by Tegmarkian network -the fundamental censorship constraining chaos as well as  abracadabra.

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It is baffling to speculate what our species can achieve with artificial intelligence.
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It is baffling to speculate how far  artificial intelligence can go.
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A recent 3D simulation of the universe using  neural networks of AI monitoring how stuff interacts in space  is eerily  more accurate than traditional computer models.The creators of this AI wonder how it is possible.
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An algorithm is a set of instructions taking inputs and generating outputs.
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Every cooking recipe is an algorithm.
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Algorithm is a formal description of steps required to achieve some goal.
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Flow Chart  is a  diagram  representing an algorithm.
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An algorithm is a self-contained sequence of actions to be performed. …………………………………………
Algorithms are more like verbs than like nouns.
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Only in the last few centuries did the source of authority shift from celestial deities to flesh-and-blood humans. Soon authority might shift again – from humans to algorithms.
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Feelings are biochemical algorithms honed through millions of years of evolution to quickly calculate probabilities of survival and reproduction.
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Feelings of sexual attraction arise when other biochemical algorithms calculate that a nearby individual offers a high probability of successful mating, social bonding, or some other coveted goal.
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Moral feelings such as outrage, guilt or forgiveness derive from neural mechanisms that evolved to enable group cooperation.
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Feelings are originally evolutionary rationality.
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Our feeling was the best method in the universe for deciding what to study, who to marry, and which party to vote for. Soon computer algorithms could give you better counsel than human feelings.
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The most important medical decisions rely on the calculations of computers which understand our bodies much better than we do.
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The world might not be a playground of autonomous individuals struggling to make the right choices.
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The universe is a flow of data.
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Organisms are little more than biochemical algorithms.
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Humanity’s cosmic vocation is to create an all-encompassing data-processing system – and then merge into it.
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We are tiny chips inside a giant data-processing system absorbing and processing countless data bits through emails, tweets and articles.
Chips don’t have time to find out where they fit into the great scheme of things, because they are too busy answering all these emails.
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What was good for survival and reproduction in the African savannah a million years ago does not necessarily make for responsible behaviour on twenty- first-century motorways. Distracted, angry and anxious human drivers kill more than a million people in traffic accidents every year.
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The politicians have an illusion of choice, while the really important decisions have already been made much earlier by the economists, bankers and business people who shaped the different options in the menu. Similarly , AI might decide human choices .
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Collective nature of biological systems helps groups of different, error-prone actors variously succeed and fail at processing information together.
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Most biological systems are all made up of interacting components with only partly overlapping interests.
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Most biological systems are noisy information processors dealing with noisy signals.
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Nature can solve problems and patterns can spontaneously come from, and everything seems uncannily organized.
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Although quantum fields began as a mathematical construct, they are the most predictable of all theories.
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All physical systems extract energy and do work.
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Adaptive systems are influenced by information processing.
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Adaptive systems extract energy more efficiently even though it has to expend a little extra energy to do the information processing.
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Adaptive systems utilize the noisy process of looking out at the world, and discovering the regularities.
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An adaptive system produces an output, and it might be a good output for the environment or it might not. And then over time it hopefully gets better and better.
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Nature can win a victory over subjectivity in information processing through collective computation.
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Every human decision is a collective computation of roughly 86 billion neurons.
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The dimension of the space is equal to the number of cells in the population.
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The question of robustness is potentially quite important, as the ability of information to propagate determines how much information from the periphery will reach the deeper neural structures that affect decision making and behavior.
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The neurons go out and semi-independently collect information about the noisy input, and that’s like neural crowdsourcing. Then they come together and come to some consensus about what the decision should be.
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Collective computation deals with how social systems or other biological systems go from state A to state B.
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Collective computation deals with how a social system goes from having a few super-powerful animals to a setup where there is less inequality.
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Collective computation can measure how far a system sits from the critical point for switching between different states.
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If big contributors join, the system moves toward the critical point.
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Army ants  span gaps on the forest floor by linking their own bodies into bridges. Loose groups of shoaling fish snap into tight schools to tackle  predators. Computational rules are used by  organisms to solve such problems.

 
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Flocks of birds, networks of neurons, slime molds and other biological collectives jointly process information to arrive at group behaviors.Such metric space is a social coordinate space. It’s not Euclidean.
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Phenomenological rules in biology emerge from microscopic ground truths.
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For hundreds of thousands of years Homo sapiens lived in small groups of a few dozen people. We invented nationality to be loyal to millions of utter strangers.
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Tribes gradually coalesced into a single nation to exercise the power to build dams and canals, regulate the flow of the river, build grain reserves for lean years, and establish a countrywide system of transport and communication. Without nationalism , we would be living in tribal chaos (Afghanistan, Somalia, Congo and most other failed states).
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