…………………………………………

We can’t expect a better interpretation of quantum mechanics at the cost of classical realism.

…………………………………………

As individual quantum systems, particles appear to scatter off empty branches of the wave-function, and conversely travel through particles as if they were waves.

…………………………………………

Geo-centrism was dismissed by the Copernican revolution; perpetual motion dismissed by thermodynamics, and absolute space and time dismissed by relativity theory.

…………………………………………

Local realism (locality, determinism and causation) appears to be violated by quantum entanglement.

…………………………………………

Quantum “particle”, or configurations do not obey the principle of inertia and the conservation of momentum.

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is like the worst weather forecasts giving only the average daily amount of rain expected over the next month. It says nothing about specific atoms or electrons doing things in real time.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is just to scrutinize records of events long after they have happened.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum mechanics works only for “ensembles” of many particles. The larger ensemble, the better.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

“Quantum trajectory theory makes predictions that are impossible to make with the standard formulation,” Devoret said. In particular, it can predict how individual quantum objects such as particles will behave when they are observed — that’s to say, when measurements are made on them.

……………………………………..

Schrödinger’s equation can’t tell us what to expect from a lone quantum jump.

……………………………………..

Measurement derails the Schrödinger equation because the act of observation (due to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle) injects a noise into the system.

……………………………………..

A new quantum trajectory theory(QTT) uses careful and complete observations of the way the system has behaved so far to predict what it will do in the future.

It gives us the story of an individual particle — and the ability to see where it might be headed next.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

In double-slit experiment, individual photons that pass through a wall with two slits produce patterns on a screen as if they’re all waves interacting — until we set up a photon detector to measure which slits each photon passes through, at which point they produce two bright lines as if they’re individual photons.

……………………………………..

In superposition, quantum particles travel as wave taking two paths at once. But measurement or observation collapses these into individual particles taking a single path at one time.

……………………………………..

Physicists explain big(planets) and small things(electrons) by two separate rulebooks.

…………………………………………

General relativity explains gravitational force : orbiting planets, colliding galaxies, the expanding universe as a whole. Quantum mechanics explains the other three forces—electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces.

…………………………………………

Just as a pixel is the smallest unit of an image on a digital screen, so there might be an unbreakable smallest unit of coordinating geometry: a quantum of space-time.

…………………………………………

We can think of the division between the relativistic (subjective/survival) and quantum (objective/logical) systems as “smooth” versus “chunky.”

…………………………………………

Any relativistically continuous cause has deterministic local effect. Quantum events happen in jumps without any local effect.

…………………………………………

Phase space unifies classical mechanics and quantum mechanics in order to determine the future behavior of a system.

…………………………………………

To cover all possible states of a physical system, classical phase space includes both configuration and momentum spaces occupied by all the objects in the system.

…………………………………………

Physical space or configuration space might be mathematically defined by a finite or infinite dimensional manifold M.

…………………………………………

In a phase space, every degree of freedom or parameter of the system is represented as an axis of a multidimensional space; a one-dimensional system is called a phase line, while a two-dimensional system is called a phase plane.

…………………………………………

Every quantum mechanical observable corresponds to a unique function or distribution on phase space, and vice versa.

…………………………………………

Quantization is the procedure to construct a quantum system whose microscopic aggregate corresponds to a given classical system.

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics allows temporal or spatial connections forbidden by classical physics.

…………………………………………

Two entangled particles can influence each other instantly, even though they are a mile apart.

………………………………………

Piling up energy is piling up mass.

Our universe begins to fold in on itself like a black hole if we interpret smooth relativistic laws in a chunky quantum style, or vice versa.

…………………………………………

Craig Hogan suspects that the quantum units of space itself might be large enough to be studied directly.

…………………………………………

Relativity’s space-time curvature led to the modern conception of the Big Bang and black holes, not to mention atomic bombs and the time adjustments essential to our phone’s GPS.

…………………………………………

Quantum nonlocality did much more than reformulate equations of electricity, magnetism, and light. It provided the conceptual tools for the Large Hadron Collider, solar cells and all of modern microelectronics.

…………………………………………

We need a theory of quantum-gravity to tell us where the laws of nature came from, and whether the cosmos is built on uncertainty or whether it is fundamentally deterministic, with every event linked definitively to a cause.

…………………………………………

Scientists are trying to measure the graininess of space.

…………………………………………

Relativity’s space is continuous and infinitely divisible.

…………………………………………

A pixel is the smallest unit of a digital image. A photon is the smallest unit of light. A quantum of space might be an unbreakable smallest unit of distance. The theater of reality in which gravity acts would itself be divided into unbreakable quantum units.

…………………………………………

Like chunky space, string theory averts gravitational catastrophe by introducing a finite, smallest scale to the universe.

…………………………………………

Just as a TV picture can create the impression of depth from a bunch of flat pixels, our seemingly three-dimensional reality might emerge from its two-dimensional units.

…………………………………………

A success for the holometer would mean failure for string theory. If space is chunky, the holometer’s mirrors would constantly wander about and beams would be slightly out of sync.

…………………………………………

The other three laws of physics follow quantum rules, so it makes sense that gravity must as well.

…………………………………………

For most of today’s theorists, classical physics is a kind of illusion, an approximation of the quantum world.

…………………………………………

Even to Feynman, fractional spin and anyons seemed to be mere speculations.

…………………………………………

Vacuum is the state of minimum energy.

Void /spacetime /coordinate is the theoretical blank address to keep everything from happening in the same place.

…………………………………………

In Newtonian physics, vacuum is a void where separated particles exist as real things.

In quantum theory, particles are merely excitations or disturbances in the respective fields, the things identical to uncaused reality.

……………………………………..

Feynman’s path integral formulation without hidden assumptions ( fields) is a quantum version of Newton’s particle approach.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum fields spontaneously fluctuate in intensity and direction.

……………………………………..

Higher the frequency and amplitude of a wave, higher the power and energy.

……………………………………..

A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude.

……………………………………..

Amplitude modulation or AM is the method of varying the instantaneous amplitude (signal strength) of carrier signal in proportion to instantaneous amplitude of message signal.This technique contrasts with frequency modulation, in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation, in which its phase is varied.

……………………………………..

If two signals are at their highest peak (+) at the same time they are in phase. If one signal is at its highest peak (+) while the other is at its lowest peak (-), they are 180 degrees out of phase.

…………………………………………

The phase of a wave is the distance between the wave’s origin point and its first zero-crossing.

…………………………………………

Different states of matter are called liquid, solid, and gas phases. In each phase, molecules interact differently showing distinct physical properties.

……………………………………..

Superfluid, superconducting, and quantum critical phases are some exotic states of matter.

……………………………………..

Quantum fields such as the Higgs field can exist in different phases i. e. states .

………………………………..

Quantum speed limits are actually Einsteinian.

…………………………………………

Although Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle relates position and momentum uncertainties, time is treated as a parameter(fixable in equation) rather than an observable.

…………………………………………

Many experiments demonstrating an instantaneous quantum connection between two widely separated particles accept “spooky action at a distance”.

…………………………………………

The challenge to quantum physicists is to find ways to make a large scale universe pop out of their equations.

…………………………………………

Relativity, despite its perceived strangeness, is as classical as Newtonian mechanics.

…………………………………………

The demonstrated reality of spooky action at a distance shows that there is no underlying classical determinism as Einstein hoped.

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics rejects classical ‘locality’ where a physical event can affect only its immediate surroundings.

…………………………………………

Scientists still wonder about the actual mechanism behind quantum superpositions.

……………………………………..

Superposition is a mathematical as well as experimental demand saying that tiny objects can exist in multiple places or states simultaneously.

……………………………………..

Superposition is a cornerstone of quantum physics.

……………………………………..

Quarks and electrons are fundamental particles because they have no substructures.

…………………………………………

String theory is an intellectual adventure to explain the substructure of elementary particles.

…………………………………………

Though electrons are elementary particles ,both protons and neutrons are composed of quarks.

…………………………………………

String theory is a quantum-gravity theory.

…………………………………………

There might be extra dimensions.

…………………………………………

If string theory is true, there are extra dimensions.

…………………………………………

The compact space along an extra dimension might be too small for the extra dimension to be detected.

…………………………………………

It took many years to confirm that the two-dimensional surface of the earth is curved or compact along a third dimension.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Everything we can interact with might be stuck to the four-dimensional surface of a larger-dimensional space-time bowl.

…………………………………………

A dimension is not a crazy idea. A dimension is a direction.

…………………………………………

We live in three dimensional space.

…………………………………………

If we want to specify the location of something in space, we have to give three numbers.

…………………………………………

Speculated other worlds/universes are not other dimensions themselves.

…………………………………………

The mathematics of quantum systems apply to elementary particles that can be studied in the lab.

…………………………………………

Quantum description is probabilistic. It doesn’t tell us for certain that something is here or there. It tells us that something is both here and there at the same time. Dictionaries have got a new word ‘superposition’.

…………………………………………

Quantum superposed states might exist in multiverses i.e. different worlds. This is called the many-worlds interpretation.

…………………………………………

Quantum many-worlds interpretation says that when you flip a coin, instead of there being a definite outcome, there are both outcomes, and then the world splits into these two superposed worlds.

…………………………………………

Conflicting observations(vertical vs horizontal ) of the same reality (a photon’s polarization) may both be correct, according quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend.” For someone ignorant of the result of the measurements, the unmeasured photon is still in a state of superposition.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics describes how the world works at subatomic scale.

…………………………………………

According to quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend” , no measurement result is absolute but relative to the observer.

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics is the most successful theory ever formulated. Its experimental predictions are often beyond question.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum entanglement connects us to the edge of the universe.

…………………………………………

Instead of describing the universe in terms of particles and forces, quantum entanglement describes it as a quantum information processing.

…………………………………………

The space-time fabric of the universe might emerge from the entangled correlation of quantum information.

…………………………………………

Space-time might be generated by quantum entanglement.

…………………………………………

Copying does not exist in the quantum world.

…………………………………………

If we wonder what’s truly fundamental in this Universe, we have to to investigate matter and energy on the smallest scale.

…………………………………………

On smallest scale individual particles lack well-defined properties like position and momentum.

…………………………………………

What appears to us as quantum indeterminism, is actually to regard our common sense more fundamental than logic.

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics has doomed Einstein’s dream — of a deterministic description of reality — at least theoretically.

…………………………………………

Gravitational effects are negligible at the quantum level.

……………………………………..

General relativity and quantum mechanics can describe nature only within their domains of applicability.

……………………………………..

Since the gravitational field is a deformation of spacetime itself, gravity is supposed to act on particles interactions, or even on their existence.

……………………………………..

We still don’t know whether quantum field theory is stable if we take into account the gravitational field.

……………………………………..

Structures like black holes or cosmological singularities are the assumptions of general relativity, but their critical points, their subatomic singularities belong to the quantum realm. So physicists bother about such enigmatic structures to combine quantum mechanics with relativity.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

We can’t expect a better interpretation of quantum mechanics at the cost of classical realism.

…………………………………………

As individual quantum systems, particles appear to scatter off empty branches of the wave-function, and conversely travel through particles as if they were waves.

…………………………………………

Geo-centrism was dismissed by the Copernican revolution; perpetual motion dismissed by thermodynamics, and absolute space and time dismissed by relativity theory.

…………………………………………

Local realism (locality, determinism and causation) appears to be violated by quantum entanglement.

…………………………………………

Quantum “particle”, or configurations do not obey the principle of inertia and the conservation of momentum.

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is like the worst weather forecasts giving only the average daily amount of rain expected over the next month. It says nothing about specific atoms or electrons doing things in real time.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is just to scrutinize records of events long after they have happened.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum mechanics works only for “ensembles” of many particles. The larger ensemble, the better.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

“Quantum trajectory theory makes predictions that are impossible to make with the standard formulation,” Devoret said. In particular, it can predict how individual quantum objects such as particles will behave when they are observed — that’s to say, when measurements are made on them.

……………………………………..

Schrödinger’s equation can’t tell us what to expect from a lone quantum jump.

……………………………………..

Measurement derails the Schrödinger equation because the act of observation (due to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle) injects a noise into the system.

……………………………………..

A new quantum trajectory theory(QTT) uses careful and complete observations of the way the system has behaved so far to predict what it will do in the future.

It gives us the story of an individual particle — and the ability to see where it might be headed next.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

In double-slit experiment, individual photons that pass through a wall with two slits produce patterns on a screen as if they’re all waves interacting — until we set up a photon detector to measure which slits each photon passes through, at which point they produce two bright lines as if they’re individual photons.

……………………………………..

In superposition, quantum particles travel as wave taking two paths at once. But measurement or observation collapses these into individual particles taking a single path at one time.

……………………………………..

Physicists explain big(planets) and small things(electrons) by two separate rulebooks.

…………………………………………

General relativity explains gravitational force : orbiting planets, colliding galaxies, the expanding universe as a whole. Quantum mechanics explains the other three forces—electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces.

…………………………………………

Just as a pixel is the smallest unit of an image on a digital screen, so there might be an unbreakable smallest unit of coordinating geometry: a quantum of space-time.

…………………………………………

We can think of the division between the relativistic (subjective/survival) and quantum (objective/logical) systems as “smooth” versus “chunky.”

…………………………………………

Any relativistically continuous cause has deterministic local effect. Quantum events happen in jumps without any local effect.

…………………………………………

Phase space unifies classical mechanics and quantum mechanics in order to determine the future behavior of a system.

…………………………………………

To cover all possible states of a physical system, classical phase space includes both configuration and momentum spaces occupied by all the objects in the system.

…………………………………………

Physical space or configuration space might be mathematically defined by a finite or infinite dimensional manifold M.

…………………………………………

In a phase space, every degree of freedom or parameter of the system is represented as an axis of a multidimensional space; a one-dimensional system is called a phase line, while a two-dimensional system is called a phase plane.

…………………………………………

Every quantum mechanical observable corresponds to a unique function or distribution on phase space, and vice versa.

…………………………………………

Quantization is the procedure to construct a quantum system whose microscopic aggregate corresponds to a given classical system.

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics allows temporal or spatial connections forbidden by classical physics.

…………………………………………

Two entangled particles can influence each other instantly, even though they are a mile apart.

………………………………………

Piling up energy is piling up mass.

Our universe begins to fold in on itself like a black hole if we interpret smooth relativistic laws in a chunky quantum style, or vice versa.

…………………………………………

Craig Hogan suspects that the quantum units of space itself might be large enough to be studied directly.

…………………………………………

Relativity’s space-time curvature led to the modern conception of the Big Bang and black holes, not to mention atomic bombs and the time adjustments essential to our phone’s GPS.

…………………………………………

Quantum nonlocality did much more than reformulate equations of electricity, magnetism, and light. It provided the conceptual tools for the Large Hadron Collider, solar cells and all of modern microelectronics.

…………………………………………

We need a theory of quantum-gravity to tell us where the laws of nature came from, and whether the cosmos is built on uncertainty or whether it is fundamentally deterministic, with every event linked definitively to a cause.

…………………………………………

Scientists are trying to measure the graininess of space.

…………………………………………

Relativity’s space is continuous and infinitely divisible.

…………………………………………

A pixel is the smallest unit of a digital image. A photon is the smallest unit of light. A quantum of space might be an unbreakable smallest unit of distance. The theater of reality in which gravity acts would itself be divided into unbreakable quantum units.

…………………………………………

Like chunky space, string theory averts gravitational catastrophe by introducing a finite, smallest scale to the universe.

…………………………………………

Just as a TV picture can create the impression of depth from a bunch of flat pixels, our seemingly three-dimensional reality might emerge from its two-dimensional units.

…………………………………………

A success for the holometer would mean failure for string theory. If space is chunky, the holometer’s mirrors would constantly wander about and beams would be slightly out of sync.

…………………………………………

The other three laws of physics follow quantum rules, so it makes sense that gravity must as well.

…………………………………………

For most of today’s theorists, classical physics is a kind of illusion, an approximation of the quantum world.

…………………………………………

Even to Feynman, fractional spin and anyons seemed to be mere speculations.

…………………………………………

Vacuum is the state of minimum energy.

Void /spacetime /coordinate is the theoretical blank address to keep everything from happening in the same place.

…………………………………………

In Newtonian physics, vacuum is a void where separated particles exist as real things.

In quantum theory, particles are merely excitations or disturbances in the respective fields, the things identical to uncaused reality.

……………………………………..

Feynman’s path integral formulation without hidden assumptions ( fields) is a quantum version of Newton’s particle approach.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum fields spontaneously fluctuate in intensity and direction.

……………………………………..

Higher the frequency and amplitude of a wave, higher the power and energy.

……………………………………..

A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude.

……………………………………..

Amplitude modulation or AM is the method of varying the instantaneous amplitude (signal strength) of carrier signal in proportion to instantaneous amplitude of message signal.This technique contrasts with frequency modulation, in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation, in which its phase is varied.

……………………………………..

If two signals are at their highest peak (+) at the same time they are in phase. If one signal is at its highest peak (+) while the other is at its lowest peak (-), they are 180 degrees out of phase.

…………………………………………

The phase of a wave is the distance between the wave’s origin point and its first zero-crossing.

…………………………………………

Different states of matter are called liquid, solid, and gas phases. In each phase, molecules interact differently showing distinct physical properties.

……………………………………..

Superfluid, superconducting, and quantum critical phases are some exotic states of matter.

……………………………………..

Quantum fields such as the Higgs field can exist in different phases i. e. states .

………………………………..

Quantum speed limits are actually Einsteinian.

…………………………………………

Although Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle relates position and momentum uncertainties, time is treated as a parameter(fixable in equation) rather than an observable.

…………………………………………

Many experiments demonstrating an instantaneous quantum connection between two widely separated particles accept “spooky action at a distance”.

…………………………………………

The challenge to quantum physicists is to find ways to make a large scale universe pop out of their equations.

…………………………………………

Relativity, despite its perceived strangeness, is as classical as Newtonian mechanics.

…………………………………………

The demonstrated reality of spooky action at a distance shows that there is no underlying classical determinism as Einstein hoped.

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics rejects classical ‘locality’ where a physical event can affect only its immediate surroundings.

…………………………………………

Scientists still wonder about the actual mechanism behind quantum superpositions.

……………………………………..

Superposition is a mathematical as well as experimental demand saying that tiny objects can exist in multiple places or states simultaneously.

……………………………………..

Superposition is a cornerstone of quantum physics.

……………………………………..

Quarks and electrons are fundamental particles because they have no substructures.

…………………………………………

String theory is an intellectual adventure to explain the substructure of elementary particles.

…………………………………………

Though electrons are elementary particles ,both protons and neutrons are composed of quarks.

…………………………………………

String theory is a quantum-gravity theory.

…………………………………………

There might be extra dimensions.

…………………………………………

If string theory is true, there are extra dimensions.

…………………………………………

The compact space along an extra dimension might be too small for the extra dimension to be detected.

…………………………………………

It took many years to confirm that the two-dimensional surface of the earth is curved or compact along a third dimension.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Everything we can interact with might be stuck to the four-dimensional surface of a larger-dimensional space-time bowl.

…………………………………………

A dimension is not a crazy idea. A dimension is a direction.

…………………………………………

We live in three dimensional space.

…………………………………………

If we want to specify the location of something in space, we have to give three numbers.

…………………………………………

Speculated other worlds/universes are not other dimensions themselves.

…………………………………………

The mathematics of quantum systems apply to elementary particles that can be studied in the lab.

…………………………………………

Quantum description is probabilistic. It doesn’t tell us for certain that something is here or there. It tells us that something is both here and there at the same time. Dictionaries have got a new word ‘superposition’.

…………………………………………

Quantum superposed states might exist in multiverses i.e. different worlds. This is called the many-worlds interpretation.

…………………………………………

Quantum many-worlds interpretation says that when you flip a coin, instead of there being a definite outcome, there are both outcomes, and then the world splits into these two superposed worlds.

…………………………………………

Conflicting observations(vertical vs horizontal ) of the same reality (a photon’s polarization) may both be correct, according quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend.” For someone ignorant of the result of the measurements, the unmeasured photon is still in a state of superposition.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics describes how the world works at subatomic scale.

…………………………………………

According to quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend” , no measurement result is absolute but relative to the observer.

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics is the most successful theory ever formulated. Its experimental predictions are often beyond question.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum entanglement connects us to the edge of the universe.

…………………………………………

Instead of describing the universe in terms of particles and forces, quantum entanglement describes it as a quantum information processing.

…………………………………………

The space-time fabric of the universe might emerge from the entangled correlation of quantum information.

…………………………………………

Space-time might be generated by quantum entanglement.

…………………………………………

Copying does not exist in the quantum world.

…………………………………………

If we wonder what’s truly fundamental in this Universe, we have to to investigate matter and energy on the smallest scale.

…………………………………………

On smallest scale individual particles lack well-defined properties like position and momentum.

…………………………………………

What appears to us as quantum indeterminism, is actually to regard our common sense more fundamental than logic.

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics has doomed Einstein’s dream — of a deterministic description of reality — at least theoretically.

…………………………………………

Gravitational effects are negligible at the quantum level.

……………………………………..

General relativity and quantum mechanics can describe nature only within their domains of applicability.

……………………………………..

Since the gravitational field is a deformation of spacetime itself, gravity is supposed to act on particles interactions, or even on their existence.

……………………………………..

We still don’t know whether quantum field theory is stable if we take into account the gravitational field.

……………………………………..

Structures like black holes or cosmological singularities are the assumptions of general relativity, but their critical points, their subatomic singularities belong to the quantum realm. So physicists bother about such enigmatic structures to combine quantum mechanics with relativity.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

Some Quantum Darwinists dream of a theoretical framework that needs no classical environment, but just shows how classical reality can emerge from mutually interactive quantum systems!

…………………………………………

Fields in QFT determine how many fundamental particles (with spin between 0 and 1, inclusive) there are, in a particular state, at a specific spacetime region.

……………………………………..

Our science teachers should promote

the vision that any physical theory is just a tool (imaginary model) for making calculations. Reality needs (what does it even mean?) no blueprint.

……………………………………..

“I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.”

-Richard Feynman

……………………………………..

Though physicists use quantum mathe’magic’ to discover new particles or to invent quantum computers, they still don’t know how ‘real’istic their equations are.

……………………………………..

Physicists have put off thinking about the true meaning of quantum mechanics for the time being.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

Today’s physicists can directly measure the complex amplitudes of a nonlocal wave function of two entangled photons, rather than relying on tomographic(computerised image of a particular plane through an object from multiple X-ray measurements) or other indirect techniques.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

“Quantum Physics is fine, human bias about reality is the real problem”.

-Ethan Siegel

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

We can’t expect a better interpretation of quantum mechanics at the cost of classical realism.

…………………………………………

As individual quantum systems, particles appear to scatter off empty branches of the wave-function, and conversely travel through particles as if they were waves.

…………………………………………

Geo-centrism was dismissed by the Copernican revolution; perpetual motion dismissed by thermodynamics, and absolute space and time dismissed by relativity theory.

…………………………………………

Local realism (locality, determinism and causation) appears to be violated by quantum entanglement.

…………………………………………

Quantum “particle”, or configurations do not obey the principle of inertia and the conservation of momentum.

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is like the worst weather forecasts giving only the average daily amount of rain expected over the next month. It says nothing about specific atoms or electrons doing things in real time.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is just to scrutinize records of events long after they have happened.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum mechanics works only for “ensembles” of many particles. The larger ensemble, the better.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

“Quantum trajectory theory makes predictions that are impossible to make with the standard formulation,” Devoret said. In particular, it can predict how individual quantum objects such as particles will behave when they are observed — that’s to say, when measurements are made on them.

……………………………………..

Schrödinger’s equation can’t tell us what to expect from a lone quantum jump.

……………………………………..

Measurement derails the Schrödinger equation because the act of observation (due to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle) injects a noise into the system.

……………………………………..

A new quantum trajectory theory(QTT) uses careful and complete observations of the way the system has behaved so far to predict what it will do in the future.

It gives us the story of an individual particle — and the ability to see where it might be headed next.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

In double-slit experiment, individual photons that pass through a wall with two slits produce patterns on a screen as if they’re all waves interacting — until we set up a photon detector to measure which slits each photon passes through, at which point they produce two bright lines as if they’re individual photons.

……………………………………..

In superposition, quantum particles travel as wave taking two paths at once. But measurement or observation collapses these into individual particles taking a single path at one time.

……………………………………..

Physicists explain big(planets) and small things(electrons) by two separate rulebooks.

…………………………………………

General relativity explains gravitational force : orbiting planets, colliding galaxies, the expanding universe as a whole. Quantum mechanics explains the other three forces—electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces.

…………………………………………

Just as a pixel is the smallest unit of an image on a digital screen, so there might be an unbreakable smallest unit of coordinating geometry: a quantum of space-time.

…………………………………………

We can think of the division between the relativistic (subjective/survival) and quantum (objective/logical) systems as “smooth” versus “chunky.”

…………………………………………

Any relativistically continuous cause has deterministic local effect. Quantum events happen in jumps without any local effect.

…………………………………………

Phase space unifies classical mechanics and quantum mechanics in order to determine the future behavior of a system.

…………………………………………

To cover all possible states of a physical system, classical phase space includes both configuration and momentum spaces occupied by all the objects in the system.

…………………………………………

Physical space or configuration space might be mathematically defined by a finite or infinite dimensional manifold M.

…………………………………………

In a phase space, every degree of freedom or parameter of the system is represented as an axis of a multidimensional space; a one-dimensional system is called a phase line, while a two-dimensional system is called a phase plane.

…………………………………………

Every quantum mechanical observable corresponds to a unique function or distribution on phase space, and vice versa.

…………………………………………

Quantization is the procedure to construct a quantum system whose microscopic aggregate corresponds to a given classical system.

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics allows temporal or spatial connections forbidden by classical physics.

…………………………………………

Two entangled particles can influence each other instantly, even though they are a mile apart.

………………………………………

Piling up energy is piling up mass.

Our universe begins to fold in on itself like a black hole if we interpret smooth relativistic laws in a chunky quantum style, or vice versa.

…………………………………………

Craig Hogan suspects that the quantum units of space itself might be large enough to be studied directly.

…………………………………………

Relativity’s space-time curvature led to the modern conception of the Big Bang and black holes, not to mention atomic bombs and the time adjustments essential to our phone’s GPS.

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Quantum nonlocality did much more than reformulate equations of electricity, magnetism, and light. It provided the conceptual tools for the Large Hadron Collider, solar cells and all of modern microelectronics.

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We need a theory of quantum-gravity to tell us where the laws of nature came from, and whether the cosmos is built on uncertainty or whether it is fundamentally deterministic, with every event linked definitively to a cause.

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Scientists are trying to measure the graininess of space.

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Relativity’s space is continuous and infinitely divisible.

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A pixel is the smallest unit of a digital image. A photon is the smallest unit of light. A quantum of space might be an unbreakable smallest unit of distance. The theater of reality in which gravity acts would itself be divided into unbreakable quantum units.

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Like chunky space, string theory averts gravitational catastrophe by introducing a finite, smallest scale to the universe.

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Just as a TV picture can create the impression of depth from a bunch of flat pixels, our seemingly three-dimensional reality might emerge from its two-dimensional units.

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A success for the holometer would mean failure for string theory. If space is chunky, the holometer’s mirrors would constantly wander about and beams would be slightly out of sync.

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The other three laws of physics follow quantum rules, so it makes sense that gravity must as well.

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For most of today’s theorists, classical physics is a kind of illusion, an approximation of the quantum world.

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Even to Feynman, fractional spin and anyons seemed to be mere speculations.

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Vacuum is the state of minimum energy.

Void /spacetime /coordinate is the theoretical blank address to keep everything from happening in the same place.

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In Newtonian physics, vacuum is a void where separated particles exist as real things.

In quantum theory, particles are merely excitations or disturbances in the respective fields, the things identical to uncaused reality.

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Feynman’s path integral formulation without hidden assumptions ( fields) is a quantum version of Newton’s particle approach.

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Quantum fields spontaneously fluctuate in intensity and direction.

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Higher the frequency and amplitude of a wave, higher the power and energy.

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A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude.

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Amplitude modulation or AM is the method of varying the instantaneous amplitude (signal strength) of carrier signal in proportion to instantaneous amplitude of message signal.This technique contrasts with frequency modulation, in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation, in which its phase is varied.

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If two signals are at their highest peak (+) at the same time they are in phase. If one signal is at its highest peak (+) while the other is at its lowest peak (-), they are 180 degrees out of phase.

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The phase of a wave is the distance between the wave’s origin point and its first zero-crossing.

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Different states of matter are called liquid, solid, and gas phases. In each phase, molecules interact differently showing distinct physical properties.

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Superfluid, superconducting, and quantum critical phases are some exotic states of matter.

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Quantum fields such as the Higgs field can exist in different phases i. e. states .

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Quantum speed limits are actually Einsteinian.

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Although Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle relates position and momentum uncertainties, time is treated as a parameter(fixable in equation) rather than an observable.

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Many experiments demonstrating an instantaneous quantum connection between two widely separated particles accept “spooky action at a distance”.

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The challenge to quantum physicists is to find ways to make a large scale universe pop out of their equations.

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Relativity, despite its perceived strangeness, is as classical as Newtonian mechanics.

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The demonstrated reality of spooky action at a distance shows that there is no underlying classical determinism as Einstein hoped.

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Quantum mechanics rejects classical ‘locality’ where a physical event can affect only its immediate surroundings.

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Scientists still wonder about the actual mechanism behind quantum superpositions.

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Superposition is a mathematical as well as experimental demand saying that tiny objects can exist in multiple places or states simultaneously.

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Superposition is a cornerstone of quantum physics.

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Quarks and electrons are fundamental particles because they have no substructures.

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String theory is an intellectual adventure to explain the substructure of elementary particles.

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Though electrons are elementary particles ,both protons and neutrons are composed of quarks.

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String theory is a quantum-gravity theory.

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There might be extra dimensions.

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If string theory is true, there are extra dimensions.

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The compact space along an extra dimension might be too small for the extra dimension to be detected.

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It took many years to confirm that the two-dimensional surface of the earth is curved or compact along a third dimension.

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Everything we can interact with might be stuck to the four-dimensional surface of a larger-dimensional space-time bowl.

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A dimension is not a crazy idea. A dimension is a direction.

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We live in three dimensional space.

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If we want to specify the location of something in space, we have to give three numbers.

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Speculated other worlds/universes are not other dimensions themselves.

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The mathematics of quantum systems apply to elementary particles that can be studied in the lab.

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Quantum description is probabilistic. It doesn’t tell us for certain that something is here or there. It tells us that something is both here and there at the same time. Dictionaries have got a new word ‘superposition’.

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Quantum superposed states might exist in multiverses i.e. different worlds. This is called the many-worlds interpretation.

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Quantum many-worlds interpretation says that when you flip a coin, instead of there being a definite outcome, there are both outcomes, and then the world splits into these two superposed worlds.

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Conflicting observations(vertical vs horizontal ) of the same reality (a photon’s polarization) may both be correct, according quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend.” For someone ignorant of the result of the measurements, the unmeasured photon is still in a state of superposition.

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Quantum mechanics describes how the world works at subatomic scale.

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According to quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend” , no measurement result is absolute but relative to the observer.

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Quantum mechanics is the most successful theory ever formulated. Its experimental predictions are often beyond question.

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Quantum entanglement connects us to the edge of the universe.

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Instead of describing the universe in terms of particles and forces, quantum entanglement describes it as a quantum information processing.

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The space-time fabric of the universe might emerge from the entangled correlation of quantum information.

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Space-time might be generated by quantum entanglement.

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Copying does not exist in the quantum world.

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If we wonder what’s truly fundamental in this Universe, we have to to investigate matter and energy on the smallest scale.

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On smallest scale individual particles lack well-defined properties like position and momentum.

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What appears to us as quantum indeterminism, is actually to regard our common sense more fundamental than logic.

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Quantum mechanics has doomed Einstein’s dream — of a deterministic description of reality — at least theoretically.

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Gravitational effects are negligible at the quantum level.

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General relativity and quantum mechanics can describe nature only within their domains of applicability.

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Since the gravitational field is a deformation of spacetime itself, gravity is supposed to act on particles interactions, or even on their existence.

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We still don’t know whether quantum field theory is stable if we take into account the gravitational field.

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Structures like black holes or cosmological singularities are the assumptions of general relativity, but their critical points, their subatomic singularities belong to the quantum realm. So physicists bother about such enigmatic structures to combine quantum mechanics with relativity.

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Everything ,whether living or nonliving, serves as hardware (host medium) for the survival of some replicator-software. Due to universal Darwinism, only the most efficient transmission media gets to play host.

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Physical existence is a host-medium spreading pointer states/quantum probabilities/fundamental replicators.

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Where there is life,there are replicators. And vice versa? Beware. Alien replicators imply alien life!

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If our media environments — everything from internet to infotainment get too autonomous to need biological hosts, a memetic alien life/ AI might try to get rid of humanity in line with Darwinian natural selection.

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What is most radical about Dawkins’ theory is that it reduces existence to the level of mere media- as if things exist only to facilitate the replication and passage of information.

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We needed Darwin to show us that life is the gift of mechanical evolution. We needed Dawkins to tell us that neither individuals nor species but replicators serve as the hot iron to bear the blind blows of evolutionary hammer.

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In Dawkins’s theory, very little difference exists between humans and machines, animals and ideologies, insects and internet memes— all are just containers of some replicators.

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In Dawkins’s theory, man is just one of many potential host media for transmission and reproduction of “content”.

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Our bodies are containers for genes. Our minds are containers for memes.

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“When you plant a fertile meme in my mind you literally parasitize my brain, turning it into a vehicle for the meme’s propagation in just the way that a virus may parasitize the genetic mechanism of a host cell.”

-Richard Dawkins

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According to Richard Dawkins’ famous book “The Selfish Gene”(1976), neither species nor individual beings play central role in evolution. Living things serve as useful “packages” for genes’ survival in harsh enviromrnt.

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According to Richard Dawkins’ famous book “The Selfish Gene”(1976), life on this planet emerged as the byproduct of multiplying replicators’(DNA molecules) survival in more and more

precariously effective ways.

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Our entire anthropic environment can be seen as a dynamic host or transmission media for the survival of replicators (both genes and memes) in general. Our entire planet ,as a survival package to protect replicators, resembles Gaia(James Lovelock’s Alive Earth).

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Replicators are medium-born. Medium proliferates them. But they will use any medium extending their circulation and reproduction. After finding a better medium replicators quickly leave the old medium without any gratitude.

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A medium serves as the host for replicators.

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Replicators cannot survive without a host.

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A host/medium/container/transmitter is quickly chosen by replicators whenever it is available and effective.

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A sort of memetic spell forces us to share posts on social media. This 21st century has already become a digital meme pool. Internet users(directly or indirectly) serve as mere links in a chain of host media for the passage of memetic information. Too much automation might one day replace our species with artificially intelligent robots. Replication will continue as well, or even better.

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An individual atom’s quantum spin is its electrons’ net spin.

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An individual atom’s spin on a surface can be used as qubits for quantum computer.

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Physicists can modify interactions between pairs of atoms by controlling the position of qubits.

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Classical computers make use of bits that can have either one of two distinct values, “0” or “1”.

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As well as taking two distinct values, “0” or “1”, qubits can also exist in quantum superposition states of “0” and “1” at the same time.

…………………………………………The quantumness of qubits is extremely fragile since information saturates soon into the surrounding environment.

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Since spin happens when constituents (particles) of an object travel in circular path, fundamental particles like electrons have no classical spin.

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Momentum is the stability against gravity just by moving.

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An upright and stable spinning top wobbles and finally topples due to gravity. But electrons in a magnet never topple but mysteriously wobble!

Experimental observations force us to name this mystery as ‘spin’- a quantum meme!

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Math not only works with electrons’ ghostly spin, it also

allows us to build some cool electronic gadgets.

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Our familiar three(four)-dimensional Euclidean coordinate system is not a suitable meme to describe a typical quantum-mechanical system. Often math and observations agree to introduce other memetic parameters (like spin) and memetic spaces (like a Hilbert or a Fock space).

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To match and model observations ,we force quantum mechanic’s mathematical space to “spin” around our classical particle. Classicality is a more familiar meme than quantumness………………………………………….

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In an entropically dying universe, our most sacred duty is to figure out how to get out of this self-destructive trap and to spread ourselves into (naturally/artificiality born) newer and newer universes if possible. This is feasible only in a world of maximum knowledge and maximum love.

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Whenever we assume something that exists in reality, we actually presume a

map/meme/ model of reality. Since all ‘models’ are wrong by definition, we should be ashamed to be fundamentalist!

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Our instinctive virtues and vices are actually autonomous algorithms (mechanistically blind evolutionary plugins) that help us survive in brutally indifferent Darwinian struggle.

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]]>Our instinctive virtues and vices are actually autonomous algorithms (mechanistically blind evolutionary plugins) that help us survive in brutally indifferent Darwinian struggle.

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Ancients lived happily without caring about atoms. But the knowledge of atoms has given us everything from steel to data chips.

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**F**ields in QFT determine how many fundamental particles (with spin between 0 and 1, inclusive) there are, in a particular state, at a specific spacetime region.

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Our science teachers should promote

the vision that any physical theory is just a tool (imaginary model) for making calculations. Reality needs (what does it even mean?) no blueprint.

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“Not why the world and life exist, is alarmingly arousing, but that both exist at all instead of nothingness. Isn’t it crazy to take them for granted?”

-Meme Updater

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*Quantum mechanics* (mathematical description of subatomic particles) says that it’s impossible to

separate reality from the observer of reality. *Quantummechanically*, things(actually measurable features about them) exist as statistical probability densities before interacting with classical(actually higher density parts) things ( observer).

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All matter is composed of atoms. Atoms are themselves made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Electron is fundamental. Proton and neutron are made of fundamental quarks. Even such fundamental particles are just excitations in their respective quantum fields.

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The Standard Model , the best technical philosophy with some fundamental constants, represents a set of symmetries. The particular ways these symmetries break determine the spectrum of allowed particles..

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The Standard Model deals with fermion fields (quarks and leptons), as well as boson fields (gluons, weak bosons, and photon), as well as the Higgs field and neutrino fields.

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According to Stephen Hawking, it may be the end of human freedom if we ever come into contact with intelligent aliens.

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Even extraterrestrial life elsewhere in the universe must be self-replicating, information carrying arrangements of molecules.

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Non-humans survive without intelligence.Humans are cosmic oddity.

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Some extraterrestrial life elsewhere in the universe might undergo odd adaptations to genetically evolve into ‘space faring locust’ instead of inventing fire, wheel, differential equation, lunar probe or crew dragon.

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]]>Quantummechanically, ‘higher probabilities’ / ‘pointer states’ asymptomatically approach to taking on classicality or observed ‘REALITY’. Since things don’t exist until we measure , Heisenberg’s uncertainty might play the role of the fundamental observer in the form of variated densities of ‘quantumness’.

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An object can exist only if a

perfectly accurate mathematical description of the universe mathematically allows it to do so. Such a description resembles Tegmark’s mathematical universe.

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Mere existing might just be a duality(interchangeability) for a mathematical tool for making perfectly

accurate predictions, and vice versa. That’s why our existential reality consists of subjective yes-no questions.

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]]>The higher energy ‘state’ of the Universe during inflation is like higher ‘level’ of water in a bottle before it leaks and the said level comes down to the bottom, of course, in a low-energy state.

But if the said level can’t reach the very bottom but stops above at some upper position resembling the finite, non-zero value of the Higgs field when its symmetry breaks — it might evolve into the dark energy (inflaton field in post-inflation avatar?).

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Quintessence (the purest essence of something) is the generic model unifying the inflationary field and the dark energy field as a whole.

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Inflation occurs at an energy scale of around 10^15 GeV while dark energy at an energy scale of around 1 milli-eV.

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After 13.8 billion years, we expect to be able to see back almost 13.8 billion light years. But the observed value is 92 billion light years because matter is gravitationally attracted , space itself has inflated ( 41.4billion ly) and is still expanding dark-enegetically(46billion ly).

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Matter moves through space, mostly due to the gravity.

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Maximum non-expanding cosmic distance is twice the age of the Universe in light years. Yet there are galaxies more distant than that!

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Due to the Universe’s expansion and the presence of dark energy, 97% of the observable Universe is already unreachable, even if Elon Musk left today at the speed of light.

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New space is constantly getting created in between the bound galaxies, groups and clusters.

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Initial and inflationary high energetic false vacuum state (field theoretically some sort of ‘inflaton’ particle) was coupled to matter and radiation. Dark energy has no such coupling.

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“The more existential knowledge we have, the deeper we live.”

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A fish in the pond should live both horizontally and vertically to attain maximum experience. To live maximally, man needs both horizontal (social bonding) and vertical (existential knowledge) experience.

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