Quantum Mechanics

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…………………………………………

We can’t expect a better interpretation of quantum mechanics at the cost of classical realism.

…………………………………………

As individual quantum systems, particles appear to scatter off empty branches of the wave-function, and conversely travel through particles as if they were waves.

…………………………………………

Geo-centrism was dismissed by the Copernican revolution; perpetual  motion dismissed by thermodynamics, and absolute space and time dismissed by relativity theory.

…………………………………………

Local realism (locality, determinism and causation)  appears to be violated by quantum entanglement.

…………………………………………

Quantum “particle”, or configurations do not obey the principle of inertia and the conservation of momentum.

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is like the worst weather forecasts giving only the average daily amount of rain expected over the next month. It says nothing about specific atoms or electrons doing things in real time.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is just to scrutinize records of events long after they have happened.
……………………………………..
Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum mechanics works only for “ensembles” of many particles. The larger ensemble, the better.
……………………………………..

……………………………………..
“Quantum trajectory theory makes predictions that are impossible to make with the standard formulation,” Devoret said. In particular, it can predict how individual quantum objects such as particles will behave when they are observed — that’s to say, when measurements are made on them.
……………………………………..
Schrödinger’s equation can’t tell us what to expect from a lone quantum jump.
……………………………………..
Measurement derails the Schrödinger equation because the act of observation (due to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle) injects a noise into the system.
……………………………………..

A new quantum trajectory theory(QTT) uses careful and complete observations of the way the system has behaved so far to predict what it will do in the future.
It gives us the story of an individual particle — and the ability to see where it might be headed next.

……………………………………..
…………………………………………

In double-slit experiment,  individual photons that pass through a wall with two slits produce patterns on a screen as if they’re all waves interacting — until we  set up a photon detector to measure which slits each photon passes through, at which point they produce two bright lines as if they’re individual photons.

……………………………………..
In superposition, quantum particles travel as  wave taking two paths at once. But measurement or observation  collapses these into individual particles taking a single path at one time.

……………………………………..

Physicists explain big(planets) and small things(electrons) by two separate rulebooks.

…………………………………………
General relativity explains  gravitational force : orbiting planets, colliding galaxies, the expanding universe as a whole. Quantum mechanics explains the other three forces—electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces.
…………………………………………

Just as a pixel is the smallest unit of an image on a digital screen, so there might be an unbreakable smallest unit of coordinating geometry: a quantum of space-time.
…………………………………………
We can think of the division between the relativistic (subjective/survival) and quantum (objective/logical) systems as “smooth” versus “chunky.”
…………………………………………

Any relativistically continuous cause has deterministic local effect. Quantum events happen in jumps without any local effect.

…………………………………………
Phase space unifies classical mechanics and quantum mechanics in order to determine the future behavior of a system.
…………………………………………
To cover all possible states of a physical system, classical phase space includes both  configuration and momentum spaces  occupied by all the objects in the system.
…………………………………………
Physical space or configuration space  might be mathematically  defined by a finite or infinite dimensional manifold M.
…………………………………………

In a phase space, every degree of freedom or parameter of the system is represented as an axis of a multidimensional space; a one-dimensional system is called a phase line, while a two-dimensional system is called a phase plane.
…………………………………………
Every quantum mechanical observable corresponds to a unique function or distribution on phase space, and vice versa.

…………………………………………

Quantization is the procedure to construct a quantum system whose microscopic  aggregate corresponds to a given classical system.
…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics allows temporal or spatial connections forbidden by classical physics.
…………………………………………

Two entangled particles can influence each other instantly, even though they are a mile apart.
………………………………………
Piling up energy is   piling up mass.
Our universe begins to  fold in on itself like a black hole if we interpret smooth relativistic laws in a chunky quantum style, or vice versa.

…………………………………………

Craig Hogan suspects that the quantum units of space itself might be large enough to be studied directly.
…………………………………………

Relativity’s space-time curvature led to the modern conception of the Big Bang and black holes, not to mention atomic bombs and the time adjustments essential to our phone’s GPS.
…………………………………………
Quantum nonlocality did much more than reformulate equations of electricity, magnetism, and light. It provided the conceptual tools for the Large Hadron Collider, solar cells and all of modern microelectronics.
…………………………………………
We need a theory of quantum-gravity to tell us where the laws of nature came from, and whether the cosmos is built on uncertainty or whether it is fundamentally deterministic, with every event linked definitively to a cause.
…………………………………………
Scientists are trying to measure the graininess of space.
…………………………………………

Relativity’s space is continuous and infinitely divisible.
…………………………………………
A pixel is the smallest unit of a digital  image. A photon is the smallest unit of light. A quantum of space might be an unbreakable smallest unit of distance. The theater of reality in which gravity acts would itself be divided into unbreakable quantum units.
…………………………………………
Like chunky space, string theory averts gravitational catastrophe by introducing a finite, smallest scale to the universe.
…………………………………………
Just as a TV picture can create the impression of depth from a bunch of flat pixels, our seemingly three-dimensional reality might emerge from its two-dimensional units.
…………………………………………
A success for the holometer would mean failure for string theory. If space is chunky, the holometer’s  mirrors would constantly wander about and beams would be slightly out of sync.
…………………………………………
The other three laws of physics follow quantum rules, so it makes sense that gravity must as well.
…………………………………………
For most of today’s theorists, classical physics is a kind of illusion, an approximation of the quantum world.
…………………………………………

Even to Feynman, fractional spin and anyons seemed to be mere speculations.
…………………………………………
Vacuum is the state of minimum energy.
Void /spacetime /coordinate  is  the theoretical blank address to keep everything from happening in the same place.
…………………………………………
In Newtonian physics, vacuum is a void where separated particles exist as real things.
In quantum theory, particles are merely excitations or  disturbances in the respective  fields, the  things identical to uncaused reality.
……………………………………..
Feynman’s path integral formulation without hidden assumptions ( fields)  is a quantum  version of  Newton’s particle approach.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum fields spontaneously fluctuate in intensity and direction.
……………………………………..
Higher the frequency and amplitude of a wave, higher the power and energy.
……………………………………..

A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude.
……………………………………..

Amplitude modulation or AM is the method of varying the instantaneous amplitude (signal strength)   of carrier signal in proportion to instantaneous amplitude of message signal.This technique contrasts with frequency modulation, in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation, in which its phase is varied.
……………………………………..

If two signals are at their highest peak (+) at the same time they are in phase. If one signal is at its highest peak (+) while the other  is at its lowest peak (-), they are 180 degrees out of phase.

…………………………………………

The phase of a wave is the distance between the wave’s origin point and its  first zero-crossing.
…………………………………………

Different states of matter are called  liquid, solid, and gas phases. In each phase,  molecules interact differently showing distinct physical properties.
……………………………………..

Superfluid, superconducting, and quantum critical phases are some exotic states of matter.
……………………………………..
Quantum fields such as the Higgs field can  exist in different phases i. e. states .
………………………………..
Quantum speed limits are  actually Einsteinian.
…………………………………………

Although Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle  relates position and momentum uncertainties, time is treated as a parameter(fixable in equation) rather than an observable.

…………………………………………
Many experiments demonstrating an instantaneous quantum connection between two widely separated particles  accept “spooky action at a distance”.
…………………………………………
The challenge to quantum physicists is to find ways to make a large scale universe pop out of their equations.

…………………………………………

Relativity, despite its perceived strangeness, is as classical as Newtonian mechanics.
…………………………………………
The demonstrated reality of spooky action at a distance shows that there is no underlying classical determinism as Einstein hoped.
…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics rejects   classical  ‘locality’  where a physical event can affect only its immediate surroundings.

…………………………………………

Scientists still wonder about the actual mechanism behind quantum superpositions.

……………………………………..

Superposition is a mathematical as well as experimental demand saying  that tiny objects can exist in multiple places or states simultaneously.

……………………………………..

Superposition  is a cornerstone of quantum physics.

……………………………………..
Quarks and electrons are fundamental particles because they have no substructures.

…………………………………………
String theory is an intellectual  adventure  to explain the substructure of elementary particles.

…………………………………………
Though electrons are elementary particles  ,both protons and neutrons are composed of quarks.

…………………………………………
String theory is a quantum-gravity theory.
…………………………………………
There might be extra dimensions.

…………………………………………
If string theory is true, there are extra dimensions.

…………………………………………
The compact space along an extra dimension might be too small for the  extra dimension to be detected.

…………………………………………
It took many years to confirm that the two-dimensional surface of the earth is curved or compact along a third dimension.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Everything we can interact with might be stuck to the four-dimensional surface of a larger-dimensional space-time bowl.

…………………………………………

A dimension is not a crazy idea. A dimension is a direction.

…………………………………………
We live in three dimensional space.

…………………………………………
If we want to specify the location of something in space, we have to give three numbers.

…………………………………………
Speculated other worlds/universes  are not other dimensions themselves.

…………………………………………
The mathematics of quantum systems apply to elementary particles that  can be studied in the lab.

…………………………………………
Quantum description is probabilistic. It doesn’t tell us for certain that something is here or there. It  tells  us  that something is both here and there  at the same time. Dictionaries have  got a new word   ‘superposition’.

…………………………………………

Quantum superposed states might exist in multiverses i.e. different  worlds. This is called the many-worlds interpretation.
…………………………………………

Quantum many-worlds interpretation  says  that when you flip a coin, instead of there being a definite outcome, there are both outcomes, and then the world splits into these two  superposed worlds.

…………………………………………
Conflicting observations(vertical vs  horizontal ) of the same reality (a photon’s polarization) may both be correct, according quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend.” For someone ignorant of the result of the measurements, the unmeasured photon is still in a state of superposition.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics describes how the world works at subatomic scale.

…………………………………………

According to quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend” , no measurement result is  absolute but relative to the observer.
…………………………………………
Quantum mechanics  is the most successful theory ever formulated. Its experimental predictions are often beyond question.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Quantum entanglement connects us to the edge of the universe.
…………………………………………
Instead of describing the universe in terms of particles and forces, quantum entanglement describes it as a quantum information processing.
…………………………………………
The space-time fabric of the universe might emerge from the entangled correlation of quantum information.
…………………………………………

Space-time might be generated  by quantum entanglement.
…………………………………………
Copying does not exist in the quantum world.
…………………………………………

If we wonder  what’s truly fundamental in this Universe, we have to to investigate matter and energy on the smallest  scale.

…………………………………………
On smallest scale individual particles lack well-defined properties like position and momentum.

…………………………………………

What appears to us as  quantum indeterminism, is actually to regard our common sense more  fundamental  than logic.
…………………………………………
Quantum mechanics has doomed Einstein’s  dream — of a  deterministic description of reality —  at least  theoretically.
…………………………………………

Gravitational effects are  negligible at the quantum level.

……………………………………..

General relativity and quantum mechanics can describe nature only  within their domains of applicability.
……………………………………..
Since the gravitational field is  a deformation of spacetime itself, gravity  is supposed to act on particles interactions, or even on their existence.
……………………………………..
We still don’t know whether quantum field theory is stable if we take into account the gravitational field.
……………………………………..
Structures like black holes or cosmological singularities are the assumptions of  general relativity, but their critical points, their subatomic singularities belong to the quantum realm. So physicists bother about such enigmatic structures to combine quantum mechanics with relativity.

……………………………………..
……………………………………..

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

We can’t expect a better interpretation of quantum mechanics at the cost of classical realism.

…………………………………………

As individual quantum systems, particles appear to scatter off empty branches of the wave-function, and conversely travel through particles as if they were waves.

…………………………………………

Geo-centrism was dismissed by the Copernican revolution; perpetual  motion dismissed by thermodynamics, and absolute space and time dismissed by relativity theory.

…………………………………………

Local realism (locality, determinism and causation)  appears to be violated by quantum entanglement.

…………………………………………

Quantum “particle”, or configurations do not obey the principle of inertia and the conservation of momentum.

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is like the worst weather forecasts giving only the average daily amount of rain expected over the next month. It says nothing about specific atoms or electrons doing things in real time.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is just to scrutinize records of events long after they have happened.
……………………………………..
Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum mechanics works only for “ensembles” of many particles. The larger ensemble, the better.
……………………………………..

……………………………………..
“Quantum trajectory theory makes predictions that are impossible to make with the standard formulation,” Devoret said. In particular, it can predict how individual quantum objects such as particles will behave when they are observed — that’s to say, when measurements are made on them.
……………………………………..
Schrödinger’s equation can’t tell us what to expect from a lone quantum jump.
……………………………………..
Measurement derails the Schrödinger equation because the act of observation (due to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle) injects a noise into the system.
……………………………………..

A new quantum trajectory theory(QTT) uses careful and complete observations of the way the system has behaved so far to predict what it will do in the future.
It gives us the story of an individual particle — and the ability to see where it might be headed next.

……………………………………..
…………………………………………

In double-slit experiment,  individual photons that pass through a wall with two slits produce patterns on a screen as if they’re all waves interacting — until we  set up a photon detector to measure which slits each photon passes through, at which point they produce two bright lines as if they’re individual photons.

……………………………………..
In superposition, quantum particles travel as  wave taking two paths at once. But measurement or observation  collapses these into individual particles taking a single path at one time.

……………………………………..

Physicists explain big(planets) and small things(electrons) by two separate rulebooks.


…………………………………………
General relativity explains  gravitational force : orbiting planets, colliding galaxies, the expanding universe as a whole. Quantum mechanics explains the other three forces—electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces.
…………………………………………

Just as a pixel is the smallest unit of an image on a digital screen, so there might be an unbreakable smallest unit of coordinating geometry: a quantum of space-time.
…………………………………………
We can think of the division between the relativistic (subjective/survival) and quantum (objective/logical) systems as “smooth” versus “chunky.”
…………………………………………


Any relativistically continuous cause has deterministic local effect. Quantum events happen in jumps without any local effect.


…………………………………………
Phase space unifies classical mechanics and quantum mechanics in order to determine the future behavior of a system.
…………………………………………
To cover all possible states of a physical system, classical phase space includes both  configuration and momentum spaces  occupied by all the objects in the system.
…………………………………………
Physical space or configuration space  might be mathematically  defined by a finite or infinite dimensional manifold M.
…………………………………………

In a phase space, every degree of freedom or parameter of the system is represented as an axis of a multidimensional space; a one-dimensional system is called a phase line, while a two-dimensional system is called a phase plane.
…………………………………………
Every quantum mechanical observable corresponds to a unique function or distribution on phase space, and vice versa.


…………………………………………

Quantization is the procedure to construct a quantum system whose microscopic  aggregate corresponds to a given classical system.
…………………………………………


Quantum mechanics allows temporal or spatial connections forbidden by classical physics.
…………………………………………


Two entangled particles can influence each other instantly, even though they are a mile apart.
………………………………………
Piling up energy is   piling up mass.
Our universe begins to  fold in on itself like a black hole if we interpret smooth relativistic laws in a chunky quantum style, or vice versa.


…………………………………………

Craig Hogan suspects that the quantum units of space itself might be large enough to be studied directly.
…………………………………………


Relativity’s space-time curvature led to the modern conception of the Big Bang and black holes, not to mention atomic bombs and the time adjustments essential to our phone’s GPS.
…………………………………………
Quantum nonlocality did much more than reformulate equations of electricity, magnetism, and light. It provided the conceptual tools for the Large Hadron Collider, solar cells and all of modern microelectronics.
…………………………………………
We need a theory of quantum-gravity to tell us where the laws of nature came from, and whether the cosmos is built on uncertainty or whether it is fundamentally deterministic, with every event linked definitively to a cause.
…………………………………………
Scientists are trying to measure the graininess of space.
…………………………………………

Relativity’s space is continuous and infinitely divisible.
…………………………………………
A pixel is the smallest unit of a digital  image. A photon is the smallest unit of light. A quantum of space might be an unbreakable smallest unit of distance. The theater of reality in which gravity acts would itself be divided into unbreakable quantum units.
…………………………………………
Like chunky space, string theory averts gravitational catastrophe by introducing a finite, smallest scale to the universe.
…………………………………………
Just as a TV picture can create the impression of depth from a bunch of flat pixels, our seemingly three-dimensional reality might emerge from its two-dimensional units.
…………………………………………
A success for the holometer would mean failure for string theory. If space is chunky, the holometer’s  mirrors would constantly wander about and beams would be slightly out of sync.
…………………………………………
The other three laws of physics follow quantum rules, so it makes sense that gravity must as well.
…………………………………………
For most of today’s theorists, classical physics is a kind of illusion, an approximation of the quantum world.
…………………………………………


Even to Feynman, fractional spin and anyons seemed to be mere speculations.
…………………………………………
Vacuum is the state of minimum energy.
Void /spacetime /coordinate  is  the theoretical blank address to keep everything from happening in the same place.
…………………………………………
In Newtonian physics, vacuum is a void where separated particles exist as real things.
In quantum theory, particles are merely excitations or  disturbances in the respective  fields, the  things identical to uncaused reality.
……………………………………..
Feynman’s path integral formulation without hidden assumptions ( fields)  is a quantum  version of  Newton’s particle approach.
…………………………………………


…………………………………………


Quantum fields spontaneously fluctuate in intensity and direction.
……………………………………..
Higher the frequency and amplitude of a wave, higher the power and energy.
……………………………………..

A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude.
……………………………………..

Amplitude modulation or AM is the method of varying the instantaneous amplitude (signal strength)   of carrier signal in proportion to instantaneous amplitude of message signal.This technique contrasts with frequency modulation, in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation, in which its phase is varied.
……………………………………..


If two signals are at their highest peak (+) at the same time they are in phase. If one signal is at its highest peak (+) while the other  is at its lowest peak (-), they are 180 degrees out of phase.

…………………………………………

The phase of a wave is the distance between the wave’s origin point and its  first zero-crossing.
…………………………………………


Different states of matter are called  liquid, solid, and gas phases. In each phase,  molecules interact differently showing distinct physical properties.
……………………………………..


Superfluid, superconducting, and quantum critical phases are some exotic states of matter.
……………………………………..
Quantum fields such as the Higgs field can  exist in different phases i. e. states .
………………………………..
Quantum speed limits are  actually Einsteinian.
…………………………………………

Although Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle  relates position and momentum uncertainties, time is treated as a parameter(fixable in equation) rather than an observable.


…………………………………………
Many experiments demonstrating an instantaneous quantum connection between two widely separated particles  accept “spooky action at a distance”.
…………………………………………
The challenge to quantum physicists is to find ways to make a large scale universe pop out of their equations.


…………………………………………

Relativity, despite its perceived strangeness, is as classical as Newtonian mechanics.
…………………………………………
The demonstrated reality of spooky action at a distance shows that there is no underlying classical determinism as Einstein hoped.
…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics rejects   classical  ‘locality’  where a physical event can affect only its immediate surroundings.


…………………………………………

Scientists still wonder about the actual mechanism behind quantum superpositions.

……………………………………..

Superposition is a mathematical as well as experimental demand saying  that tiny objects can exist in multiple places or states simultaneously.

……………………………………..

Superposition  is a cornerstone of quantum physics.

……………………………………..
Quarks and electrons are fundamental particles because they have no substructures.


…………………………………………
String theory is an intellectual  adventure  to explain the substructure of elementary particles.


…………………………………………
Though electrons are elementary particles  ,both protons and neutrons are composed of quarks.


…………………………………………
String theory is a quantum-gravity theory.
…………………………………………
There might be extra dimensions.


…………………………………………
If string theory is true, there are extra dimensions.


…………………………………………
The compact space along an extra dimension might be too small for the  extra dimension to be detected.


…………………………………………
It took many years to confirm that the two-dimensional surface of the earth is curved or compact along a third dimension.


…………………………………………


…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Everything we can interact with might be stuck to the four-dimensional surface of a larger-dimensional space-time bowl.


…………………………………………


A dimension is not a crazy idea. A dimension is a direction.


…………………………………………
We live in three dimensional space.


…………………………………………
If we want to specify the location of something in space, we have to give three numbers.


…………………………………………
Speculated other worlds/universes  are not other dimensions themselves.


…………………………………………
The mathematics of quantum systems apply to elementary particles that  can be studied in the lab.


…………………………………………
Quantum description is probabilistic. It doesn’t tell us for certain that something is here or there. It  tells  us  that something is both here and there  at the same time. Dictionaries have  got a new word   ‘superposition’.


…………………………………………

Quantum superposed states might exist in multiverses i.e. different  worlds. This is called the many-worlds interpretation.
…………………………………………


Quantum many-worlds interpretation  says  that when you flip a coin, instead of there being a definite outcome, there are both outcomes, and then the world splits into these two  superposed worlds.

…………………………………………
Conflicting observations(vertical vs  horizontal ) of the same reality (a photon’s polarization) may both be correct, according quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend.” For someone ignorant of the result of the measurements, the unmeasured photon is still in a state of superposition.


…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics describes how the world works at subatomic scale.


…………………………………………

According to quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend” , no measurement result is  absolute but relative to the observer.
…………………………………………
Quantum mechanics  is the most successful theory ever formulated. Its experimental predictions are often beyond question.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Quantum entanglement connects us to the edge of the universe.
…………………………………………
Instead of describing the universe in terms of particles and forces, quantum entanglement describes it as a quantum information processing.
…………………………………………
The space-time fabric of the universe might emerge from the entangled correlation of quantum information.
…………………………………………


Space-time might be generated  by quantum entanglement.
…………………………………………
Copying does not exist in the quantum world.  
…………………………………………

If we wonder  what’s truly fundamental in this Universe, we have to to investigate matter and energy on the smallest  scale.

…………………………………………
On smallest scale individual particles lack well-defined properties like position and momentum.

…………………………………………

What appears to us as  quantum indeterminism, is actually to regard our common sense more  fundamental  than logic.
…………………………………………
Quantum mechanics has doomed Einstein’s  dream — of a  deterministic description of reality —  at least  theoretically.
…………………………………………

Gravitational effects are  negligible at the quantum level.

……………………………………..

General relativity and quantum mechanics can describe nature only  within their domains of applicability.
……………………………………..
Since the gravitational field is  a deformation of spacetime itself, gravity  is supposed to act on particles interactions, or even on their existence.
……………………………………..
We still don’t know whether quantum field theory is stable if we take into account the gravitational field.
……………………………………..
Structures like black holes or cosmological singularities are the assumptions of  general relativity, but their critical points, their subatomic singularities belong to the quantum realm. So physicists bother about such enigmatic structures to combine quantum mechanics with relativity.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

Some Quantum Darwinists dream of  a theoretical framework that needs no classical environment, but just shows how classical reality can emerge from mutually interactive  quantum systems!

…………………………………………

Fields  in QFT determine how many fundamental particles (with spin between 0 and 1, inclusive) there are, in a particular state, at a specific spacetime region.

……………………………………..

Our science teachers should promote

the vision that any physical theory is just a tool (imaginary model) for making calculations. Reality needs (what does it even mean?) no  blueprint.

……………………………………..

“I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.”

-Richard Feynman

……………………………………..

Though physicists use quantum mathe’magic’ to discover new particles or to invent quantum computers, they still don’t know how ‘real’istic their equations are.

……………………………………..

Physicists have put off thinking about the true meaning of quantum mechanics for the time being.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

Today’s physicists can directly measure the complex amplitudes of a nonlocal wave function of two entangled photons, rather than relying on tomographic(computerised image of a particular plane through an object from multiple X-ray measurements) or other indirect techniques.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

“Quantum Physics is fine, human bias about reality is the real problem”.

-Ethan Siegel

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

We can’t expect a better interpretation of quantum mechanics at the cost of classical realism.

…………………………………………

As individual quantum systems, particles appear to scatter off empty branches of the wave-function, and conversely travel through particles as if they were waves.

…………………………………………

Geo-centrism was dismissed by the Copernican revolution; perpetual  motion dismissed by thermodynamics, and absolute space and time dismissed by relativity theory.

…………………………………………

Local realism (locality, determinism and causation)  appears to be violated by quantum entanglement.

…………………………………………

Quantum “particle”, or configurations do not obey the principle of inertia and the conservation of momentum.

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is like the worst weather forecasts giving only the average daily amount of rain expected over the next month. It says nothing about specific atoms or electrons doing things in real time.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum prediction is just to scrutinize records of events long after they have happened.

……………………………………..

Traditional (using Schroedinger’s equation) quantum mechanics works only for “ensembles” of many particles. The larger ensemble, the better.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

“Quantum trajectory theory makes predictions that are impossible to make with the standard formulation,” Devoret said. In particular, it can predict how individual quantum objects such as particles will behave when they are observed — that’s to say, when measurements are made on them.

……………………………………..

Schrödinger’s equation can’t tell us what to expect from a lone quantum jump.

……………………………………..

Measurement derails the Schrödinger equation because the act of observation (due to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle) injects a noise into the system.

……………………………………..

A new quantum trajectory theory(QTT) uses careful and complete observations of the way the system has behaved so far to predict what it will do in the future.

It gives us the story of an individual particle — and the ability to see where it might be headed next.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

In double-slit experiment,  individual photons that pass through a wall with two slits produce patterns on a screen as if they’re all waves interacting — until we  set up a photon detector to measure which slits each photon passes through, at which point they produce two bright lines as if they’re individual photons.

……………………………………..

In superposition, quantum particles travel as  wave taking two paths at once. But measurement or observation  collapses these into individual particles taking a single path at one time.

……………………………………..

Physicists explain big(planets) and small things(electrons) by two separate rulebooks.

…………………………………………

General relativity explains  gravitational force : orbiting planets, colliding galaxies, the expanding universe as a whole. Quantum mechanics explains the other three forces—electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces.

…………………………………………

Just as a pixel is the smallest unit of an image on a digital screen, so there might be an unbreakable smallest unit of coordinating geometry: a quantum of space-time.

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We can think of the division between the relativistic (subjective/survival) and quantum (objective/logical) systems as “smooth” versus “chunky.”

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Any relativistically continuous cause has deterministic local effect. Quantum events happen in jumps without any local effect.

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Phase space unifies classical mechanics and quantum mechanics in order to determine the future behavior of a system.

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To cover all possible states of a physical system, classical phase space includes both  configuration and momentum spaces  occupied by all the objects in the system.

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Physical space or configuration space  might be mathematically  defined by a finite or infinite dimensional manifold M.

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In a phase space, every degree of freedom or parameter of the system is represented as an axis of a multidimensional space; a one-dimensional system is called a phase line, while a two-dimensional system is called a phase plane.

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Every quantum mechanical observable corresponds to a unique function or distribution on phase space, and vice versa.

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Quantization is the procedure to construct a quantum system whose microscopic  aggregate corresponds to a given classical system.

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Quantum mechanics allows temporal or spatial connections forbidden by classical physics.

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Two entangled particles can influence each other instantly, even though they are a mile apart.

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Piling up energy is   piling up mass.

Our universe begins to  fold in on itself like a black hole if we interpret smooth relativistic laws in a chunky quantum style, or vice versa.

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Craig Hogan suspects that the quantum units of space itself might be large enough to be studied directly.

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Relativity’s space-time curvature led to the modern conception of the Big Bang and black holes, not to mention atomic bombs and the time adjustments essential to our phone’s GPS.

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Quantum nonlocality did much more than reformulate equations of electricity, magnetism, and light. It provided the conceptual tools for the Large Hadron Collider, solar cells and all of modern microelectronics.

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We need a theory of quantum-gravity to tell us where the laws of nature came from, and whether the cosmos is built on uncertainty or whether it is fundamentally deterministic, with every event linked definitively to a cause.

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Scientists are trying to measure the graininess of space.

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Relativity’s space is continuous and infinitely divisible.

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A pixel is the smallest unit of a digital  image. A photon is the smallest unit of light. A quantum of space might be an unbreakable smallest unit of distance. The theater of reality in which gravity acts would itself be divided into unbreakable quantum units.

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Like chunky space, string theory averts gravitational catastrophe by introducing a finite, smallest scale to the universe.

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Just as a TV picture can create the impression of depth from a bunch of flat pixels, our seemingly three-dimensional reality might emerge from its two-dimensional units.

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A success for the holometer would mean failure for string theory. If space is chunky, the holometer’s  mirrors would constantly wander about and beams would be slightly out of sync.

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The other three laws of physics follow quantum rules, so it makes sense that gravity must as well.

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For most of today’s theorists, classical physics is a kind of illusion, an approximation of the quantum world.

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Even to Feynman, fractional spin and anyons seemed to be mere speculations.

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Vacuum is the state of minimum energy.

Void /spacetime /coordinate  is  the theoretical blank address to keep everything from happening in the same place.

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In Newtonian physics, vacuum is a void where separated particles exist as real things.

In quantum theory, particles are merely excitations or  disturbances in the respective  fields, the  things identical to uncaused reality.

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Feynman’s path integral formulation without hidden assumptions ( fields)  is a quantum  version of  Newton’s particle approach.

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Quantum fields spontaneously fluctuate in intensity and direction.

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Higher the frequency and amplitude of a wave, higher the power and energy.

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A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude.

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Amplitude modulation or AM is the method of varying the instantaneous amplitude (signal strength)   of carrier signal in proportion to instantaneous amplitude of message signal.This technique contrasts with frequency modulation, in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation, in which its phase is varied.

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If two signals are at their highest peak (+) at the same time they are in phase. If one signal is at its highest peak (+) while the other  is at its lowest peak (-), they are 180 degrees out of phase.

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The phase of a wave is the distance between the wave’s origin point and its  first zero-crossing.

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Different states of matter are called  liquid, solid, and gas phases. In each phase,  molecules interact differently showing distinct physical properties.

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Superfluid, superconducting, and quantum critical phases are some exotic states of matter.

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Quantum fields such as the Higgs field can  exist in different phases i. e. states .

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Quantum speed limits are  actually Einsteinian.

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Although Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle  relates position and momentum uncertainties, time is treated as a parameter(fixable in equation) rather than an observable.

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Many experiments demonstrating an instantaneous quantum connection between two widely separated particles  accept “spooky action at a distance”.

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The challenge to quantum physicists is to find ways to make a large scale universe pop out of their equations.

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Relativity, despite its perceived strangeness, is as classical as Newtonian mechanics.

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The demonstrated reality of spooky action at a distance shows that there is no underlying classical determinism as Einstein hoped.

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Quantum mechanics rejects   classical  ‘locality’  where a physical event can affect only its immediate surroundings.

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Scientists still wonder about the actual mechanism behind quantum superpositions.

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Superposition is a mathematical as well as experimental demand saying  that tiny objects can exist in multiple places or states simultaneously.

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Superposition  is a cornerstone of quantum physics.

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Quarks and electrons are fundamental particles because they have no substructures.

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String theory is an intellectual  adventure  to explain the substructure of elementary particles.

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Though electrons are elementary particles  ,both protons and neutrons are composed of quarks.

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String theory is a quantum-gravity theory.

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There might be extra dimensions.

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If string theory is true, there are extra dimensions.

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The compact space along an extra dimension might be too small for the  extra dimension to be detected.

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It took many years to confirm that the two-dimensional surface of the earth is curved or compact along a third dimension.

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Everything we can interact with might be stuck to the four-dimensional surface of a larger-dimensional space-time bowl.

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A dimension is not a crazy idea. A dimension is a direction.

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We live in three dimensional space.

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If we want to specify the location of something in space, we have to give three numbers.

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Speculated other worlds/universes  are not other dimensions themselves.

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The mathematics of quantum systems apply to elementary particles that  can be studied in the lab.

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Quantum description is probabilistic. It doesn’t tell us for certain that something is here or there. It  tells  us  that something is both here and there  at the same time. Dictionaries have  got a new word   ‘superposition’.

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Quantum superposed states might exist in multiverses i.e. different  worlds. This is called the many-worlds interpretation.

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Quantum many-worlds interpretation  says  that when you flip a coin, instead of there being a definite outcome, there are both outcomes, and then the world splits into these two  superposed worlds.

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Conflicting observations(vertical vs  horizontal ) of the same reality (a photon’s polarization) may both be correct, according quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend.” For someone ignorant of the result of the measurements, the unmeasured photon is still in a state of superposition.

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Quantum mechanics describes how the world works at subatomic scale.

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According to quantum thought experiment known as “Wigner’s friend” , no measurement result is  absolute but relative to the observer.

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Quantum mechanics  is the most successful theory ever formulated. Its experimental predictions are often beyond question.

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Quantum entanglement connects us to the edge of the universe.

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Instead of describing the universe in terms of particles and forces, quantum entanglement describes it as a quantum information processing.

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The space-time fabric of the universe might emerge from the entangled correlation of quantum information.

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Space-time might be generated  by quantum entanglement.

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Copying does not exist in the quantum world.

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If we wonder  what’s truly fundamental in this Universe, we have to to investigate matter and energy on the smallest  scale.

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On smallest scale individual particles lack well-defined properties like position and momentum.

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What appears to us as  quantum indeterminism, is actually to regard our common sense more  fundamental  than logic.

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Quantum mechanics has doomed Einstein’s  dream — of a  deterministic description of reality —  at least  theoretically.

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Gravitational effects are  negligible at the quantum level.

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General relativity and quantum mechanics can describe nature only  within their domains of applicability.

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Since the gravitational field is  a deformation of spacetime itself, gravity  is supposed to act on particles interactions, or even on their existence.

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We still don’t know whether quantum field theory is stable if we take into account the gravitational field.

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Structures like black holes or cosmological singularities are the assumptions of  general relativity, but their critical points, their subatomic singularities belong to the quantum realm. So physicists bother about such enigmatic structures to combine quantum mechanics with relativity.

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