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Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

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General relativity explains  massive objects (stars and planets ). Quantum mechanics explains subatomic particles. A black hole (a huge mass compressed into a small space) might unify quantum mechanics and relativity.

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‘Matter’ is anything that occupies space and has mass.

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The universe is made of a “stuff” called ‘matter’.

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All matter is made up of substances called elements(atoms).

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Elements(atoms) have specific chemical and physical properties and cannot be broken down into other atoms through  chemical reactions. One element(atom ) turns into another only through nuclear fission or fusion.

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Atoms come together to form molecules. Both atoms and molecules are held together by a form of potential energy known as  ‘chemical energy’.

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Four natural states/phases  of matter:

solids, liquids, gases and plasma. The fifth state is the man-made Bose-Einstein condensates.
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The electrons of each atom are constantly in motion, so the atoms have a small vibration, but they are fixed in their position in a solid having tightly packed particles with very low kinetic energy.
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In a liquid, the particles are so loosely packed that they  flow around each other, giving the liquid an indefinite shape.
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In a gas, the particles stay far away from each other and expand due to high kinetic energy.

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Plasma of highly charged particles with extremely high kinetic energy is the most common state of matter(star)  in the universe.

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In  Bose-Einstein condensate with almost  absolute zero temperature, molecular motion drops so much that thousands of separate atoms begin to clump together to take on just one “super atom.”
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Adding or removing energy from matter causes a physical change as matter moves from one state(water) to another(gas/ice).

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When heat is removed from a liquid, its particles slow down and begin to settle in one location within the substance. Thus, the liquid becomes a solid.
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Matter has melting , freezing or triple point.

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Water, in triple point, exists in all three states at a temperature of 273.16 Kelvin and a pressure of 611.2 pascals.
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All matter is composed of one dimensional vibrating strings, smaller than any known or theorised particle.

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A correspondence or holographic duality exists between our perceived four dimensions and one-dimensional strings in an additional dimension.

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In “holographic duality”, a 2D holographic surface contains the information of a 3D image or object.
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Imaginative Homosapience can’t help wondering how our Universe operates on a fundamental level. The holographic principle might be humanity’s password to the world of quantum gravity.

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Holographic duality shows how the surface of a sphere — possessing two-dimensions — can be used to model a black hole in three dimensions.

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Holographically popped up 3D view shows why 2D black holes violate

Hawking’s calculation.

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Hawking radiational changes of  black hole information can be traced by measuring the surface area of related 3D hologram. The smallest  surface-area represents information content.

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As the surface of  3D hologram grows, a second one eventually replaces it as the smallest. Continuing to track the first surface reproduces Hawking’s error, but switching to the second one corrects the math by showing that the information contained in the black hole starts to drop.

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The hologram within a hologram shows what happens to a 2D black hole’s information.  The same concept might somehow apply to higher-dimensional black holes like those in our universe.

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Black holes  are regions of extreme  gravity, where space-time curves steeply toward a central point known as the singularity. Quantum uncertainty causes black holes to evaporate away by constantly  radiating a small amount of heat. If information is thus lost, it  violates  “unitarity” — a central principle of quantum mechanics that says the present always preserves information about the past.
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According to Hawking and Thorne, black holes kill information.

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According to Preskill, information escapes black holes, but we need a full-fledged theory of quantum gravity to describe how.

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According to complementarity proposal, information that crosses the event horizon of a black hole both reflects back out and passes inside, never to escape. Because no single observer can ever witness both inside and outside simultaneously, no contradiction arises.

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Ancients lived happily without caring  about atoms. But the knowledge of atoms has given us everything from steel to data  chips.

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Fields  in QFT determine how many fundamental particles (with spin between 0 and 1, inclusive) there are, in a particular state, at a specific spacetime region.

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Our science teachers should promote

the vision that any physical theory is just a tool (imaginary model) for making calculations. Reality needs (what does it even mean?) no  blueprint.

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“Not why the world and life exist, is  alarmingly arousing, but that both exist at all instead of nothingness. Isn’t it crazy to take them for granted?”

-Meme Updater

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Quantum mechanics (mathematical description of subatomic particles) says that it’s impossible to

separate reality from the observer of reality. Quantummechanically, things(actually measurable features about them) exist as statistical  probability densities before  interacting with classical(actually higher density parts) things ( observer).

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All matter is composed of atoms. Atoms are themselves made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Electron is fundamental. Proton and neutron are made of fundamental quarks. Even such fundamental particles are just excitations in their respective quantum fields.

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The Standard Model , the best technical philosophy with some fundamental constants,  represents a set of symmetries. The particular ways these symmetries break determine the spectrum of allowed particles..
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The Standard Model deals with  fermion fields (quarks and leptons), as well as boson fields (gluons, weak bosons, and photon), as well as the Higgs field and neutrino fields.
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