Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..……………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Our instinctive virtues and vices are actually autonomous algorithms (mechanistically blind evolutionary plugins) that help us survive in brutally   indifferent Darwinian struggle.

…………………………………………

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

General relativity explains  massive objects (stars and planets ). Quantum mechanics explains subatomic particles. A black hole (a huge mass compressed into a small space) might unify quantum mechanics and relativity.

…………………………………………


‘Matter’ is anything that occupies space and has mass.

…………………………………………

The universe is made of a “stuff” called ‘matter’.

…………………………………………

All matter is made up of substances called elements(atoms).

…………………………………………

Elements(atoms) have specific chemical and physical properties and cannot be broken down into other atoms through  chemical reactions. One element(atom ) turns into another only through nuclear fission or fusion.

…………………………………………
Atoms come together to form molecules. Both atoms and molecules are held together by a form of potential energy known as  ‘chemical energy’.

…………………………………………

Four natural states/phases  of matter:

solids, liquids, gases and plasma. The fifth state is the man-made Bose-Einstein condensates.
…………………………………………
The electrons of each atom are constantly in motion, so the atoms have a small vibration, but they are fixed in their position in a solid having tightly packed particles with very low kinetic energy.
…………………………………………
In a liquid, the particles are so loosely packed that they  flow around each other, giving the liquid an indefinite shape.
…………………………………………
In a gas, the particles stay far away from each other and expand due to high kinetic energy.

…………………………………………

Plasma of highly charged particles with extremely high kinetic energy is the most common state of matter(star)  in the universe.

…………………………………………

In  Bose-Einstein condensate with almost  absolute zero temperature, molecular motion drops so much that thousands of separate atoms begin to clump together to take on just one “super atom.”
…………………………………………
Adding or removing energy from matter causes a physical change as matter moves from one state(water) to another(gas/ice).

…………………………………………
When heat is removed from a liquid, its particles slow down and begin to settle in one location within the substance. Thus, the liquid becomes a solid.
…………………………………………
Matter has melting , freezing or triple point.

…………………………………………

Water, in triple point, exists in all three states at a temperature of 273.16 Kelvin and a pressure of 611.2 pascals.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

All matter is composed of one dimensional vibrating strings, smaller than any known or theorised particle.

…………………………………………

A correspondence or holographic duality exists between our perceived four dimensions and one-dimensional strings in an additional dimension.

…………………………………………
In “holographic duality”, a 2D holographic surface contains the information of a 3D image or object.
…………………………………………
Imaginative Homosapience can’t help wondering how our Universe operates on a fundamental level. The holographic principle might be humanity’s password to the world of quantum gravity.

…………………………………………
Holographic duality shows how the surface of a sphere — possessing two-dimensions — can be used to model a black hole in three dimensions.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Holographically popped up 3D view shows why 2D black holes violate

Hawking’s calculation.

…………………………………………

Hawking radiational changes of  black hole information can be traced by measuring the surface area of related 3D hologram. The smallest  surface-area represents information content.

…………………………………………

As the surface of  3D hologram grows, a second one eventually replaces it as the smallest. Continuing to track the first surface reproduces Hawking’s error, but switching to the second one corrects the math by showing that the information contained in the black hole starts to drop.

…………………………………………

The hologram within a hologram shows what happens to a 2D black hole’s information.  The same concept might somehow apply to higher-dimensional black holes like those in our universe.

…………………………………………

Black holes  are regions of extreme  gravity, where space-time curves steeply toward a central point known as the singularity. Quantum uncertainty causes black holes to evaporate away by constantly  radiating a small amount of heat. If information is thus lost, it  violates  “unitarity” — a central principle of quantum mechanics that says the present always preserves information about the past.
…………………………………………
According to Hawking and Thorne, black holes kill information.

…………………………………………

According to Preskill, information escapes black holes, but we need a full-fledged theory of quantum gravity to describe how.

…………………………………………
According to complementarity proposal, information that crosses the event horizon of a black hole both reflects back out and passes inside, never to escape. Because no single observer can ever witness both inside and outside simultaneously, no contradiction arises.

…………………………………………

Ancients lived happily without caring  about atoms. But the knowledge of atoms has given us everything from steel to data  chips.

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Fields  in QFT determine how many fundamental particles (with spin between 0 and 1, inclusive) there are, in a particular state, at a specific spacetime region.

……………………………………..

Our science teachers should promote

the vision that any physical theory is just a tool (imaginary model) for making calculations. Reality needs (what does it even mean?) no  blueprint.

……………………………………..

“Not why the world and life exist, is  alarmingly arousing, but that both exist at all instead of nothingness. Isn’t it crazy to take them for granted?”

-Meme Updater

…………………………………………

Quantum mechanics (mathematical description of subatomic particles) says that it’s impossible to

separate reality from the observer of reality. Quantummechanically, things(actually measurable features about them) exist as statistical  probability densities before  interacting with classical(actually higher density parts) things ( observer).

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

All matter is composed of atoms. Atoms are themselves made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Electron is fundamental. Proton and neutron are made of fundamental quarks. Even such fundamental particles are just excitations in their respective quantum fields.

……………………………………………………………………………………

The Standard Model , the best technical philosophy with some fundamental constants,  represents a set of symmetries. The particular ways these symmetries break determine the spectrum of allowed particles..
…………………………………………

…………………………………………
The Standard Model deals with  fermion fields (quarks and leptons), as well as boson fields (gluons, weak bosons, and photon), as well as the Higgs field and neutrino fields.
…………………………………………

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..

…………………………………………

According to Stephen Hawking, it may be the end of human freedom if we ever come into contact with intelligent aliens.

…………………………………………


Even extraterrestrial life elsewhere in the universe must be self-replicating, information carrying arrangements of molecules.

…………………………………………

Non-humans survive without intelligence.Humans are cosmic oddity.

…………………………………………

Some extraterrestrial life elsewhere in the universe might undergo  odd  adaptations to genetically evolve into  ‘space faring locust’ instead of  inventing  fire, wheel, differential equation, lunar probe or crew dragon.

…………………………………………

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Some recent researches on black holes, in an attempt to unify relativity and  quantum mechanics, treat the universe like a hologram.

……………………………………..

According to some recent researches on black holes, all the information inside a region of the universe should be encoded on a ( sort of )

holographic screen of one-lesser dimension. This is the holographic principle.

……………………………………..

Since holographic screens depend on the choice

of an observer, the observer in an expanding universe might be a natural  part of the cosmic system.

……………………………………..

The observer-dependence of holographic screens implies  that the fundamental description of the universe depends on the choice of the observer.

……………………………………..

Quantummechanically, ‘higher probabilities’ / ‘pointer states’ asymptomatically approach to taking on classicality or observed ‘REALITY’. Since things don’t exist until we measure , Heisenberg’s uncertainty might play the role of the fundamental observer in the form of variated densities of ‘quantumness’.

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

An object can exist only  if a

perfectly accurate mathematical description of the universe mathematically allows it to do so. Such a description resembles Tegmark’s  mathematical universe.

……………………………………..

Mere existing might just  be a duality(interchangeability)  for a mathematical tool for making perfectly

accurate predictions, and vice versa. That’s why our existential  reality consists of subjective yes-no questions.

……………………………………..

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..……………………………………..
The higher energy ‘state’ of the Universe during inflation is like higher ‘level’ of water in a bottle before it leaks and the said level comes down to the bottom, of course, in a low-energy state.

But if the said level can’t reach the very bottom but stops above at some upper position resembling the finite, non-zero value of the Higgs field when its symmetry breaks — it might evolve into the dark energy (inflaton field in post-inflation avatar?).

……………………………………..
Quintessence (the purest essence of something) is the generic model unifying the inflationary field and the dark energy field as a whole.

……………………………………..

Inflation occurs at an energy scale of around 10^15 GeV while dark energy at an energy scale of around 1 milli-eV.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

After 13.8 billion years, we expect to be able to see back almost 13.8 billion light years. But the observed value is 92 billion light years because matter is gravitationally attracted , space itself has inflated ( 41.4billion ly) and is still expanding dark-enegetically(46billion ly).

……………………………………..

Matter moves through space, mostly due to the gravity.
……………………………………..

……………………………………..

Maximum non-expanding cosmic distance is twice the age of the Universe in light years. Yet there are galaxies more distant than that!
……………………………………..

Due to the Universe’s expansion and the presence of dark energy, 97% of the observable Universe is already unreachable, even if Elon Musk left today at the speed of light.
……………………………………..
New space is constantly getting created in between the bound galaxies, groups and clusters.
……………………………………..

……………………………………..
Initial and inflationary high energetic false vacuum state (field theoretically some sort of ‘inflaton’ particle) was coupled to matter and radiation. Dark energy has no such coupling.

……………………………………..
“The more existential knowledge we have, the deeper we live.”
……………………………………..
A fish in the pond should live both horizontally and vertically to attain maximum experience. To live maximally, man needs both horizontal (social bonding) and vertical (existential knowledge) experience.
……………………………………..

…………………………………………

Cybernetics deals with the comparison of communication and control in biological and artificial systems.

……………………………………..
Neocybernetics dares to challenge our very thinking about thinking.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

Evolution is not just about biology.

…………………………………………

‘Evolution’ is not an exclusively biological term.

…………………………………………

Our universe has evolved in eight ways: quantum, particulate, galactic, stellar, planetary, chemical, biological and cultural.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Any polymerization needs monomers (atoms or molecules) bound together by sharing pairs of electrons (covalent bonds).

………………………………..Monomers make up everything, living and non-living, naturally occurring and man-made.
……………………………….

All covalently bonded macromolecules are not polymers.

……………………………..

The intermolecular forces(secondary bonds) binding polymer molecules together are weak(less than 5 kilocalories per mole), in comparison to the strong primary (20 to 80 kcal/mole) intermolecular bonds within metals or ceramics or to the intramolecular carbon-carbon backbone bonds holding the polymer molecule together.

…………………………….
The intermolecular forces(secondary bonds) binding polymer molecules together include London dispersion forces, hydrogen bonds, and an assortment of dipolar and induced-dipolar intermolecular van der Waals forces that govern the interactions between two noncovalently bound atoms or molecules.
………………………………..

A single atom of hydrogen is a monomer.

…………………………………………

Even though a single molecule of water is made up of multiple atoms – one hydrogen and two oxygen, it’s still a monomer.

…………………………………………
Proper manipulation of monomers gives birth to different polymers with a virtually limitless range of functions.

…………………………………………

‘Life’ might be a byproduct of nature’s polymer-making.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Polymers have infiltrated almost every aspect of modern life.

…………………………………………

“Most polymers we use in everyday life are from petroleum-based products, and although they’re durable in use, they’re also durable in waste.”

-Marc Hillmyer

…………………………………………

Many biodegradable carriers bags are made from polylactic acid, a polymer derived from plant starch.

…………………………………………

Biodegradable polymers still make up less than 10% of the total plastics market. says Hillmyer.

…………………………………………

Biodegradable polymers cost too much. Too much oxygen atoms stiffen biodegradable polymers.

…………………………………………

Polymer membranes function as molecular sieves for separating gases, de­salinating seawater and keeping molecules apart inside fuel cells.

…………………………………………

Polymers can store data, with each monomer representing a single bit of information.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Glucose is a common natural monomer that bonds with other molecules to make starch and glycogen.

…………………………………………

The two monomers joining together can be the same kind, or they can be different.

…………………………………………

The number of molecules a monomer is able to bond with is determined by the number of active sites on the molecule where covalent bonds can be formed.

…………………………………………

Monomers—repeating molecular units—are connected into polymers by covalent bonds.

………………………………………

The word monomer comes from Greek mono- (one) and -mer (unit).

…………………………………………

Sometimes polymers are made from bound groups of monomer subunits.Such a subunit (of a few dozen monomers) is called oligomer.

…………………………………………

A polymer changes its properties if one or a few oligomers are added or removed.

…………………………………………

Collagen and liquid paraffin are oligomers.

…………………………………………

Monomers do not necessarily form polymers unless the conditions are right.

…………………………………………

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

……………………………………..

An object can exist only  if a

perfectly accurate mathematical description of the universe mathematically allows it to do so. Such a description resembles Tegmark’s  mathematical universe.

……………………………………..

Mere existing might just  be a duality(interchangeability)  for a mathematical tool for making perfectly

accurate predictions, and vice versa. That’s why our existential  reality consists of subjective yes-no questions.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

According to Zurek’s quantum Darwinism , our concrete reality condenses(or gets transacted?) from the multiple competing options  residing fundamentally in quantum realm ( or in subjectively inaccessible  Tegmarkian objectivity/entity?).

…………………………………………

Quantum superposition doesn’t really mean that it is in several states at once; rather, it means that if we make a measurement we will see one of those outcomes. Our familiar existential reality is not objectively independent but  transactional/medium-born/ subjective/in-transit/signal-processed.

…………………………………………

The notation used to denote some integers and the their relations in a certain equation is irrelevant; the only properties of integers are those embodied by the relations between them. Only ‘mathematical relations’ are truly baggage-free.

……………………………………..

Any external reality independent of humans is purely mathematical. It is no coincidence that mathematical abstractions need no linguistic baggages.
……………………………………..

Any external reality independent of humans is purely mathematical. It is no coincidence that mathematical equations strip things down to their nakedness.
…………………………………………

……………………………………..

An object can exist only  if a

perfectly accurate mathematical description of the universe mathematically allows it to do so. Such a description resembles Tegmark’s  mathematical universe.

……………………………………..

Mere existing might just  be a duality(interchangeability)  for a mathematical tool for making perfectly

accurate predictions, and vice versa. That’s why our existential  reality consists of subjective yes-no questions.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

According to Max Tegmark, a BEING is just a self-aware part of a giant mathematical object.
…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Max Tegmark dares to say that our reality consists of mathematics.

……………………………………..

Reality’s ultimate element might not be particles, fields or strings but numbers.

……………………………………..
According to Max Tegmark, our reality is literally a mathematical structure.

…………………………………………

Although a stone is made of quarks and electrons , we humans have invented the word ‘stone’ to save time while describing its behaviours. Such linguistic baggages like ‘quarks’, ‘molecules’, ‘rocks’, ‘stars’ and ‘people’ are actually nothing but intuitively convenient optionals. A really objective description of reality needs no such baggages.

Only mathematical structures can be defined in a purely abstract way, without any human baggage.

……………………………………..

According to Max Tegmark, our so-called physical world might actually be, beyond our wildest expectations, A GIANT MATHEMATICAL OBJECT.
…………………………………………

Mathematical patterns in nature
( embedded in various equations of motion, gravity, electricity, magnetism, light, heat, chemistry, radioactivity or subatomic particles) are summarized as the laws of physics.

……………………………………..

The number ‘3’ ( the dimensionality of our space) belongs to a mathematical realm.

…………………………………………
…………………………………………

Randomness, complexity and even change are just illusions if our universe is just an eternal mathematical structure.

……………………………………..
Max Tegmark’s mathematical universe is equivalent to the strong version of platonic reality.

……………………………………..

Along with his professional working on mainstream cosmology, Max Tegmark secretly kept himself engaged with his strange theory of mathematical universe.
…………………………………………

……………………………………..

The universe is frighteningly indifferent to our emotion, ambition, achievement, art, science, religion and even our very existence.

……………………………………..

Space is too cold and most of the matter in it is too hot to let life emerge or exist.

……………………………………..

Accidents always happen before our eyes.Since the universe goes on and on across both time and space, every accident is likely to happen somewhere sometime. So the emergence of life is possible even as an accident.

…………………………………….

It can be mathematically proven that typing in an infinite series of random digits would eventually produce the complete works of William Shakespeare.

……………………………………..

Even a monkey hitting keys at random on a typewriter forever is bound to produce the complete works of William Shakespeare.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

When replication hosts  some existentially self-amplifying copying errors, it is called ‘evolution’.

…………………………………………

A replicator is anything that gets, directly or indirectly, copied.

…………………………………………

Survival of the fittest amounts to survival of the best replicating mechanism. It has nothing to do with strength, agility, longevity, happiness  or extraordinary intelligence. Even a shorter-lived replicator that is better at being copied become more abundant than a durable, long-lived one.

…………………………………………

Biological evolution is actually a contest between pieces of DNA to see which of them could make the most copies of themselves.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Replicators are medium-born. Medium proliferates them. But they will use any medium extending their circulation and reproduction. After finding a better medium  replicators quickly leave the old medium without any gratitude.

…………………………………………


A medium serves as the host for replicators.

…………………………………………
Replicators cannot survive without a host.

…………………………………………

A host/medium/container/transmitter  is quickly chosen by replicators whenever it is available and effective.

…………………………………………

A sort of memetic spell forces us to share posts on social media. This 21st century has already become a  digital meme pool. Internet users(directly or indirectly) serve as mere links in a chain of host media for the passage of memetic information. Too much automation might one day replace our species with artificially intelligent robots. Replication will continue as well, or even better.

…………………………………………

What is most radical about Dawkins’ theory is that it reduces existence to the level of mere media- as if things exist only to  facilitate the replication and passage of information.

…………………………………………

We needed Darwin to show us that life is the gift of mechanical evolution. We needed  Dawkins to tell us that neither individuals nor species but  replicators serve as the hot iron to bear the blind blows  of  evolutionary hammer.

…………………………………………

In Dawkins’s theory, very little difference exists between humans and machines, animals and ideologies, insects and internet memes— all are just containers of some replicators.

…………………………………………

In Dawkins’s theory, man is just one of many potential host media for transmission and reproduction of “content”.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Our bodies are containers for genes. Our minds are containers for memes.

…………………………………………

“When you plant a fertile meme in my mind you literally parasitize my brain, turning it into a vehicle for the meme’s propagation in just the way that a virus may parasitize the genetic mechanism of a host cell.”

-Richard Dawkins

…………………………………………

According to Richard Dawkins’  famous book “The Selfish Gene”(1976), neither species nor individual beings play  central role in evolution. Living things serve as  useful “packages” for genes’ survival in harsh enviromrnt.

…………………………………………

According to Richard Dawkins’  famous book “The Selfish Gene”(1976), life on this planet emerged as the byproduct of multiplying replicators’(DNA molecules) survival  in more and more

precariously effective ways.

…………………………………………

Our entire anthropic environment can be seen as a dynamic host or  transmission media for the survival of replicators (both genes and memes) in general. Our entire planet ,as a survival package to protect  replicators, resembles Gaia(James Lovelock’s Alive Earth).
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Horizontal gene transfer occurs when genetic information is passed “sideways” (within own generation) to a relatively unrelated organism instead of an offspring.
…………………………………………
Vertical gene transfer is the transmission of genetic information from parent to offspring.

…………………………………………
Horizontal gene transfer spreads antibiotic resistance and harmful genes.
…………………………………………

Horizontal gene transfer helps bacteria and archaea to adapt to new environments via genomic variability.

…………………………………………
…………………………………………
Horizontal gene transfer imcludes the horizontal transfer of DNA between chloroplast, or mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes.
…………………………………………
Information in extant genomes helps in dating the evolutionary tree of life.
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Horizontal gene transfer occurs when genetic information is passed “sideways” (within own generation) to a relatively unrelated organism instead of an offspring.
…………………………………………
Vertical gene transfer is the transmission of genetic information from parent to offspring.

…………………………………………
Horizontal gene transfer spreads antibiotic resistance and harmful genes.
…………………………………………

Horizontal gene transfer helps bacteria and archaea to adapt to new environments via genomic variability.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Horizontal gene transfer imcludes the horizontal transfer of DNA between chloroplast, or mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes.
…………………………………………
Information in extant genomes helps in dating the evolutionary tree of life.
…………………………………………

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………..
The higher energy ‘state’ of the Universe during inflation is like higher ‘level’ of water in a bottle before it leaks and the said level comes down to the bottom, of course, in a low-energy state.

But if the said level can’t reach the very bottom but stops above at some upper position resembling the finite, non-zero value of the Higgs field when its symmetry breaks — it might evolve into the dark energy (inflaton field in post-inflation avatar?).

……………………………………..
Quintessence (the purest essence of something) is the generic model unifying the inflationary field and the dark energy field as a whole.

……………………………………..

Inflation occurs at an energy scale of around 10^15 GeV while dark energy at an energy scale of around 1 milli-eV.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

After 13.8 billion years, we expect to be able to see back almost 13.8 billion light years. But the observed value is 92 billion light years because matter is gravitationally attracted , space itself has inflated ( 41.4billion ly) and is still expanding dark-enegetically(46billion ly).

……………………………………..

Matter moves through space, mostly due to the gravity.
……………………………………..

……………………………………..

Maximum non-expanding cosmic distance is twice the age of the Universe in light years. Yet there are galaxies more distant than that!
……………………………………..

Due to the Universe’s expansion and the presence of dark energy, 97% of the observable Universe is already unreachable, even if Elon Musk left today at the speed of light.
……………………………………..
New space is constantly getting created in between the bound galaxies, groups and clusters.
……………………………………..

………………
Initial and inflationary high energetic false vacuum state (field theoretically some sort of ‘inflaton’ particle) was coupled to matter and radiation. Dark energy has no such coupling.

……………………………………..
“The more existential knowledge we have, the deeper we live.”
……………………………………..
A fish in the pond should live both horizontally and vertically to attain maximum experience. To live maximally, man needs both horizontal (social bonding) and vertical (existential knowledge) experience.
……………………………………..

……………………………………..
According to Einstein’s General Relativity, a matter-packed and yet globally homogeneous universe is inherently unstable ( either expanding or contracting ) against gravitational collapse.

……………………………………..
Einstein’s relativity is the juxtaposition of two alienated but mutually influencing aspects of reality in a single equation: a matter-and-energy side, and a space-and-time side.
……………………………………..

The initial inflationary Universe was temporarily in a highly energetic false vacuum state, where it had vacuum energy inherent to space itself. It later decayed into a lower-energy state or Big Bang.
……………………………………..
Many cosmological predictions that came out of inflation, have been confirmed.

……………………………………..

Along with the race between inflation ( 10^-33 seconds ) and gravitation, dark energy(six billion years) is responsible for about 70% current cosmic expansion rate.

……………………………………..

…………………………………………

Nature is most complex on the intermediate (human) scale between the masses of atoms and stars.
…………………………………………
Man belongs to both the cosmos and
the microworld simultaneously.
……………………………………..
……………………………………..

A man is made up of about 10^29 atoms.
…………………………………………

A man stands midway between the masses of atoms and stars.
…………………………………………
Only intelligent people know what to ignore.
…………………………………………

Our telescopes observe 10^78 atoms(observable universe).
…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Local (called ‘biological’) schemed (called ‘free willed’) actions are actually disguised (genetically-cogged in DNA or chemically-cogged in brain) past (illusorily causal) influences embedded within global (called ‘cosmic’) indeterminism (called ‘Heisenberg’s uncertainty’ ).

…………………………………………

……………………………………..

……………………………………..
……………………………………..
Only in the largest possible (cosmic) context, we can actually know what or why we are.

……………………………………..

Physics relates the planckian smallness (within 10^-44 seconds or 10^-35 meters) to cosmic vastness( 46.5 billion light-years inflated plus dark-energetic radius in 13.8 billion Years ).
……………………………………..

……………………………………..
We know up to the first fraction of a second after the Big Bang.

……………………………………..
Six discretely measured (not theoretically derived ) fundamental constants of physics maintain our existence. So our existence is no less suspenseful than a mystery movie.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Our telescopes can see a jet of plasma shooting from the central blackhole of Messier 87 galaxy ( 55 million light-years from Earth) due to the ray’s huge length(about 6000 light years).
…………………………………………

Almost all galaxies have a central black hole that periodically draws in stars and gas clouds.

…………………………………………

Falling gas swirls and heats up in massive black holes. Magnetic fields focus some of it into jets of hot plasma. Such outflows of energy from central or massive black holes stop or start the star-formation throughout galaxies.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
According to Einstein’s special theory of relativity, no’thing’ but only ‘space’ can move(actually expand) faster than light. Yet an energy beam from galaxy M87 inexplicably(at least still) moves five times the speed of light.
…………………………………………

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..……………………………………………………………………………………
Sexual traits are energetically costly.
Male primates’ showy sexual ornaments such as manes, beards, fleshy swellings, and colorful skin patches lead to small testes that can’t swamp the sperm of others. So evolution maintains a trade-off between ‘body’ and ‘testicle’.

…………………………………………
…………………………………………
We have more microbial cells living inside our bodies than human cells.

…………………………………………
Our body literally cannot break down certain types of plant fibers without an assist from the bacteria in our gut.
…………………………………………
Probiotic pills contain ideal combinations of bacteria.
…………………………………………
……………………………………..
Our bodies are the best technology we’ve ever utilized.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

We’re all made up of little atomic elements.

…………………………………………
Somehow, here on Earth, some atomic elements have come together to make plants and animals.
…………………………………………

……………………………………..

We still don’t understand how a living cell works.

…………………………………………
The human body consists of 39 trillion of autonomously working units(cells).

…………………………………………

……………………………………..
A strand of all the DNA (7feet per cell) inside a person is 10 billion miles, enough to stretch to Pluto.

…………………………………………
Living cells in our body work without any command from some command center.

…………………………………………

Everything that happens within a man is just chemical reactions and chemical reactions are just molecular jostlings.
……………………………………..

……………………………………..
Our brain is about 80 percent water.

……………………………………..

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

……………………………………..

Language is the most powerful survival tool we have ever invented. There’s no limit to it’s logical subtlety with its being more and more straightforward, objective and penetrating. Factual memes can easily replace fictional ones (mind viruses) in such linguistic haven. After all, memes build  the very ‘model of reality’ as a reliable guide to our ‘enterprise to explore the vistas of existence’ called ‘life’.

……………………………………..

A language can reveal how the human brain works.

…………………………………………

Metaphors help us think about the unthinkable.

…………………………………………
A cognitive philosopher like Steven Pinker wonders what the meaning of ‘is’ is.

…………………………………………

Though physical concepts like matter, energy, motion, space or time are well-embeded into language, such conceptual roots are deeper than language itself to absorb sustenance from external world and to help the tree of knowledge (or reality itself?) grow (or just manifest?).

…………………………………………
Every ‘life form’ invents a particular language as a survival tool to grasp reality with the help of external things like sound or light or water or radio waves (ET?).

…………………………………………
A human language ascribes meaning to sound.

…………………………………………

According to Stevem Pinker, a language might be a window into human nature.

…………………………………………
Words are just gibberish without semantics.

…………………………………………
It’s foolishly arrogant to use epithets like ‘mere’ or ‘just a matter of’ before semantics.

…………………………………………
A language is a tool to represent reality in our heads.
…………………………………………
Semantics represents meaning ( the relation of words to reality).

…………………………………………

…………………………………………
Albert Einstein imagined ‘time’ as a fourth dimension in a seamless hyperspace.

…………………………………………
An event is a stretch of time.

…………………………………………

Conceptual semantics is independent of linguistic semantics.

…………………………………………
Even before Einstein, space and time were used interchangeably in metaphors.
…………………………………………
Concepts are doughs that we keep on kneading in mental space to give them shapes of our needs.
…………………………………………

Aenean dapibus dolor ut Donec commodo Praesent accumsan elit. risus felis Curabitur