Wormhole

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Polchinski rejected the dualistic complementarity by saying that in-falling observers would get burnt up by a literal firewall at the event horizon.

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The firewall paradox is a conflict between three fundamental postulates- equivalence principle, unitarity and locality. To resolve the paradox, one of them must be abandoned.

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Since there’s no difference between acceleration due to gravity and the acceleration of a rocket, we shouldn’t feel anything amiss when we cross a black hole horizon. This is the equivalence principle in Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

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Unitarity demands that information cannot be destroyed.

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Locality means that events happening at a particular point in space can only influence nearby points.

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Locality implies that the laws of physics  hold far away from a black hole, even if they break down at  the singularity or at the event horizon.
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One solution to resolve firewall paradox is to have the equivalence principle break down at the event horizon, thereby giving rise to a firewall.

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Samir Mathur’s  “fuzzball conjecture” resolves the paradox by declaring that there is no event horizon (hence no information loss) but a ball of strings emitting heat in the form of Hawking radiation.

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Hawking himself believed that information temporarily confined behind event horizon, eventually escapes in an unusable form.

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According to Leonard Susskind and Juan Maldacena, quantum entanglements create invisible microscopic wormholes connecting the particles still inside the hole to particles that escaped long ago. Both Hawking radiation and information loss are in line with such entangled/wormholed  links.

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Since mass and energy bend the fabric of space-time, a certain configuration of matter and energy allows a tunnel, a shortcut between two distant parts of the universe.

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We need negative mass to cancel the destabilizing effects of regular mass trying to traverse a  wormhole. We still don’t know whether matter with negative mass exist or not.

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To build a traversible wormhole we  need an entrance (black hole) and an exit (white hole). We still don’t know whether white holes exist or not.

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According to mathematics, a charged black hole(though rare) has a stretched singularity bridged to another oppositely charged black hole.If we thread the wormhole with a cosmic string, the distant ends of the cosmic string act like two opposing tug-of-war teams, holding back charged black holes.

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Many defects(cracks) arise   when ice freezes. Cosmic strings (no wider than a proton but with a single inch of their length outweighing Mount Everest) are defects in the fabric of space-time during the first fractions of a second after the Big Bang.

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