Thermodynamic

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Physical, chemical, and biological processes occur outside the thermodynamic equilibrium.

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Thermodynamics envelopes Darwinian theory.
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The laws of thermodynamics can offer an explanation of biological evolution.

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“Thermodynamics is the only physical theory of universal content which, within the framework of the applicability of its basic concepts, I am convinced will never be overthrown.”
– Albert Einstein

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In mathematical and physical modelling, a hydrogen atom’s proton, a hydrogen atom’s electron and a planet are often treated each as an isolated system.
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The traditional  matter/mind or living/non-living  dichotomy is a false dichotomy. Even intentionality  can be understood as  complex constructions of simpler properties of nature such as self-organization and thermodynamic directionality.
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The second law of thermodynamics demands that for a closed system—like a gas in a box, or the universe as a whole—disorder must increase over time.
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The second law imposes an irreversibility on the behavior of large groups of particles, allowing us to play with words like “past,” “present,” and “future.”
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Organisms are open systems. They exchange both matter and energy with their surroundings.


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The earth is a closed system
that can exchange energy with it’s environment but not matter.
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A Thermometer is a Closed System.
The cardiovascular systems of humans are closed, meaning that the blood never leaves the network of blood vessels .
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Erwin Schrödinger recognized that living organisms, unlike a gas in a box, are open systems.
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Definitions help us  learn a new subject.

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A  system  is something  we identify or prepare in order to do experiments and make observations.
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Nothing is perfectly isolated from its surroundings.
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A system is the part of the universe we wish to study. The surroundings is  the rest of the universe.
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If a system is isolated, then nothing can enter or leave.
When only energy can be exchanged, the system is called closed.

When both matter and energy can be exchanged, the system is called open.

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Thermodynamic dissipation  provides a physical-chemical framework  for understanding the origin and evolution of life.


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Ilya Prigogine’s Non-linear Classical Irreversible Thermodynamics shows that “spontaneous” macroscopic organization  across space and time can occur within a system subjected to an external chemical potential.

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Macroscopic  “spontaneous” dissipative structuring is identical to entropy production.
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