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=> Physical science includes physics and chemistry.
=>Physics tells us why there is anything at all.
=>Chemistry tells us how substances combine or separate to form other substances.

=>Chemistry describes the different forms of matter .
=>At the most basic level  a man is made of matter.
=>Matter is everything that has mass and takes up space.

=> Air is  matter.
=> Light is not matter.

=> Chemistry concerns the different kinds of matter.

=>Chemistry describes how living organisms use the food they eat.

=>Living organisms are made of chemicals known as proteins, fats and carbohydrates.

=>Biochemistry is a branch of chemistry to explore how plants and animals use chemicals and energy.

=>The sun is the source of energy for Earth.
=>Both living creatures and human technology get  almost all of their energy from the sun.
=>Without the Sun’s energy, Earth would be a cold icy place with a temperature of -273 degrees Celsius.

=>Plants store the solar energy in carbohydrates, like sugar. Animals eat the plants to get energy. Other animals eat those animals for their energy.
=>Energy is the ability for things to change. Nothing changes when no energy is exchanged.


Mars is farther from the sun than Earth. The average temperature on Mars is well below the freezing point of water.
Some Antarctic bacteria live even below this temperature.

=> Examples of scientific questions :- Why is the sky blue? How much does the earth weigh? How far away is the sun?  What is a black hole? How do airplanes fly? How do flies walk on the ceiling? How are rainbows made? Are sharks mammals?

=>“Where does the Sun come from?”  is a less scientific question than “How does  sunlight help us?”

=> A good scientific question builds on what we already know.

=>When questions arise on the basis of established knowledge, they have some real answers each with its particular hypothesis  confirmable by experimental observations.Such questions are called scientific questions.

=>Only scientific questions can be answered through science.

=>Only scientific questions ask about objects, organisms, and events in the natural world.

=> Only scientific questions can be answered through investigations that involve experiments, observations, or surveys.

=>Only scientific questions can be answered by collecting and analyzing evidential data  that is measurable.

=>A  scientific question is testable.

=>A hypothesis is a testable educated guess seeking an explanation for a set of observations or an answer to a scientific question.

=>A  scientific question is  based on observations not  imagination.

=>A  scientific question has  some actual answers.

=> A testable question is one that can be answered by designing and conducting an experiment.

=>Testable questions are always about changing one thing to see what the effect is on another thing.

=>The key steps in the scientific method are : making observations, formulating a hypothesis and testing the hypothesis through experimentation.

=>Some  questions still unanswerable by science:

What is reality? What is life? Do we have free will? Is the universe deterministic? What is consciousness? Will we ever have a theory of everything?

=>A scientific answer is  grounded in experience but bigger than that experience alone.

=>As members of society, scientists have a responsibility to use   their specialized knowledge and expertise in addressing societal issues and concerns.
=>The problem-solving approach of science is  called the scientific method.
=>The scientific method has five steps:-
Observation,Question,Hypothesis, Prediction and  Conclusion.
=>A biologist is a scientist who studies living organisms.
=>Science has helped form the world that we live in today.
=>Science is valued by society because the application of scientific knowledge helps to satisfy many basic human needs and improve living standards.

=>Science influences society through its knowledge and world view.
=>Scientific knowledge and methods  influence the way individuals think about themselves, others, and the environment.
=>The effect of science on society is neither entirely beneficial nor entirely detrimental.

=>A hypothesis is a testable but limited explanation.

=>A  scientific theory is an in-depth and confirmed explanation of the observed phenomenon.
=>A law is a  unifying proposal or  statement without an explanation  about an observed phenomenon.

=>Characteristics of a good question:- relevant, clear, concise,  purposeful, guiding but not leading , thoughtful and single-Dimensional.

=>Science begins by asking questions.

=>The five senses are seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling.
=>A hypothesis is the prediction.
=>An inference is conclusion used in forming a hypothesis.
=>Inference is based on previous knowledge.
=>Examples of some scientific laws: – Newton’s law of gravity, the laws of thermodynamics, Newton’s laws of motion, Coloumb’s law , Bernoulli’s principle, general relativity, Carnot’s theorem, Maxwell’s equations, and Brewster’s angle, etc.
=>A fact is a basic statement established under the specific conditions of the observation.
=> A “hypothesis” is “an educated guess.”
=>A “hypothesis” is a  tentative or suggested prediction based on evidence.
=>A hypothesis is very tentative; it can be easily changed.
=>According to the United States National Academy of Sciences,
“Some scientific explanations are so well established that no new evidence is likely to alter them. The explanation becomes a scientific theory.”
=>Theories allow scientists to make predictions about as yet unobserved phenomena.
=>Theories are not “guesses” but reliable explanations of the real world phenomenon.

=>Examples of some scientific theories:-
The theory of biological evolution, the atomic theory of matter  or the germ theory of disease.
=>Theories are explanations of natural phenomenon.
=>Theories  aren’t predictions.
=>We use theories to make predictions.
=> Theories are explanations why we observe something.

=>Theories don’t change overnight.

=>Theories can, indeed, be facts.
=>Theories can change.
=>Facts can’t change.

=>Theories aren’t likely to change.
=>Scientific laws are rules for how nature will behave under certain conditions.
=>Scientific laws are frequently written as an equation.
=>Theories explain why we observe what we do and laws describe what happens.

=>A law is a relationship that exists between variables.

=>Laws are the mysterious  patterns we see in large amounts of data.

=>A  belief is a statement that is not scientifically provable.
=> Beliefs may or may not be incorrect.

=>Theories are explanations and laws are patterns.

=>A hypothesis is a tentative prediction.
=>A theory is a well-supported explanation of observations.
=>A scientific law is a  summarized relationship between variables.
=>An experiment is a controlled method of testing a hypothesis.

=>Laws are generally descriptions of physical phenomena.
=>A hypothesis is an explanation for a narrow set of phenomena and a theory is an explanation for a relatively wide set of phenomena.

=>All hypotheses, theories, and laws involve facts.
=>Examples of scientific facts:-
Fish appear in the fossil record millions of years before mammals do. A dropped object falls to Earth. A gas expands when temperature rises if pressure is held constant.The ocean is salty.  It takes 365.25 Earth days for Earth to orbit around the Sun. Earth has one moon.

=>Hypotheses are proposed explanations for a narrow set of phenomena.

=>Theories  are explanations for a wide range of phenomena.

=>Hypotheses are reasoned and informed explanations. Read more about it.
=>Theories are not just hunches.

=> Laws cannot become hypotheses.Hypotheses cannot become theories.
=>Hypotheses, theories, and laws are all scientific explanations.
=>Hypotheses, theories, and laws differ in breadth (broader range of phenomena), not in level of support.
=> A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observation before it is confirmed by research.
=>Scientists propose a hypothesis before doing research as a way of predicting the outcome of study.

=>Scientific theories explain some broad aspect of the natural world and are based on solid evidence that has been confirmed over time.
=>Scientific laws describe natural phenomena, often mathematically.

=>Scientific theories can be tested.

=> Scientific theories are based on large amounts of data and observations that have been collected over time.

=>Scientific theories allow scientists to make predictions.
=> Scientific theories can be expanded and revised as new evidence is introduced or as existing data are interpreted differently.
=>Laws describe phenomena, while theories explain why phenomena exist.

=>Scientists  propose a hypothesis before doing research to  predict the outcome of a study and guide them as they design their research.
=> Some theories, like the theory of evolution by natural selection, are broad and encompass many concepts.
=>Scientific theories in one discipline can influence theories in other disciplines.

=> Scientific laws describe but do not explain an observed phenomenon.
=>An example of a scientific law is the law of gravity.
=>An example of a scientific theory is the theory of plate tectonics.
=> In order to be a scientist, a student  must practice the skill of making observations.

=>Looking up at the dark cloudy sky our experience  often predict that it might rain. It is an example of an inference.

=> A scientific method  is a process for answering questions.
=>An inference is a predicted but experienced  answer to a question based on observations.
=> An inference must be testable and isn’t always correct.

=>Data are information that is collected in order to answer a question. => A scientific method is a series of steps including observation, forming a question, stating a hypothesis, collecting data, and reaching a conclusion.

=>If we want to prove or disprove a hypothesis, we perform an experiment.
=> A theory is a statement that explains a complex idea such as a process for how Earth’s surface has changed over time.

=>A  law is a statement that describes an observed phenomenon such as why an object falls when you drop it.

=>Science is a process of gathering knowledge about the natural world.
=> Physical science  is the study of matter and energy.
=>Matter is the “stuff” that everything is made of.
=>Energy is the ability to do work.
=> Studying different forms of energy is what studying physics is all about.
=>Energy can make matter do some interesting things.
=> The study of Earth’s atmosphere, especially in relation to weather and climate, is called meteorology.

=>The study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth is called geology.
=> Physical science is divided into the study of physics and chemistry.

=>Chemistry studies the structure and properties of matter and how matter changes.
=>Physics looks at energy and the way that energy affects matter.

=> Energy is the ability to do work.

=>Air is made of matter.
=>All matter has energy.

=>Botany is the study of plants.

=>Observation is any use of the senses to gather information.

=>Noting that the sky is blue or that a cotton ball feels soft is an observation.
=>Measurements are observations that are made with tools.

=> A hypothesis is a tentative explanation because it hasn’t yet been tested.
=> A theory is not  a “hunch” or “gut feeling”.

=> Theories are well tested, well supported attempts.

=>An example of a theory is the Big Bang theory; the idea that the universe is

=>A law is considered to be a statement of fact.

=>Facts are repeatable.

=>Data refer to any pieces of information acquired through observation or experimentation.
=>Scientific methods are the ways in which scientists answer questions and solve problems.

=>Asking a question results from making an observation.
=>Questioning is the first step of using scientific methods.
=>A hypothesis is a possible explanation or answer to a question.

=>A good hypothesis is testable.

=>After testing a hypothesis, we need to  ana- lyze our results.
=>Analyzing involves calculations, tables, and graphs.
=>After analyzing the results, we draw conclusions about whether our hypothesis is supported.

=>Scientific methods are the ways in which scientists answer questions and solve problems.
=>Data are pieces of information that are gathered through experimentation.

=>Hypotheses are possible explanations or answers to a question.

=>A model is a representation of an object or system.
=>Models are never exactly like the real thing.

=> Scientific models are of three types- physical(dolls or drawings), mathematical (equations)and conceptual(big bang theory).

=>A theory not only explains an observation but also can predict what might happen in the future.

=>A law is a summary of many experimental results and observations.

=>Laws tell us only what happens, not why it happens.
=>A model uses familiar things to describe unfamiliar things.
=>Physical, mathematical, and conceptual models are commonly used in science.
=>A scientific theory is an explanation for many hypotheses and observations.

=>A scientific law sum- marizes experimental results and observations.
=>A physical model is used to represent a human heart.
=>A tool is anything that helps you do a task.

=>One way to collect data is to take measurements. To get the best measurements, we  need the proper tools.

=>Stopwatches, metersticks, and balances are tools  to make measurements.
=>Our brain processes information all the time. We use this information to make choices and solve problems.

=>The science process is like looking for a lost sock.

=>Inference is a statement based on experiences.
=>Science is  a process for answering questions.
=>A hypothesis is a possible answer to a scientific question based on observations.
=>An experiment is like looking through a keyhole.
=> An experiment is an activity performed to support or refute a hypothesis.

=>Chemists are involved in activities like making new medicines and figuring out the best way to refine oil to make gasoline.

=>Biology is the study of living things.

=>Astronomy is the study of stars and planets and anything else that is in space.

=>An observation is an accurate description of a thing or an event.
=>When practicing science, it is important to make observations without making opinions.
=>An astronomer looks through a telescope to see objects that are millions of miles away.
=>A microbiologist looks through a microscope to study small organisms like amoebas and bacteria that are millions of times smaller than us.

=>Acoustics is the science of designing objects based on how sound travels.
=>Scientific facts are statements that are accepted as being true after repeated  measurements or observations.

=>Meaningful questions can lead to a better understanding of the universe in which we live.
=> We study science for a better understanding of the world around us.

=>The development of technology is affected by society and vice versa.
=>Engineers need scientific information to develop products or solve problems.

=>Building a prototype is  the first step taken to find a technological solution.

=>Even a scientific theory might not always be true.
=>The independent variable is  known as the manipulated variable.
=>The independent variable is the only factor that can be varied or manipulated by the researcher.
=> A single independent variable  produces one or more results, known as dependent variables.

=> A controlled experiment is a scientific test.

=>A controlled experiment is  directly manipulated by a scientist.

=>A controlled experiment tests  a single independent variable at a time.

=>A controlled experiment shows  the effects of a variable on the system being studied.

=>A controlled experiment is one of the most common types of experiment.

=>Scientific studies are often made via controlled experiments.

=> In a controlled experiment
an observer tests a hypothesis by looking for changes brought on by alterations to a variable.

=>In a controlled experiment, an independent variable affects the dependent variable.

=>Graphing is a procedure to display the data during the result of an experiment.

=>There are three main types of graphs:- circle,bar and line.
=>Pie/circle graphs  are used to show parts of a whole.

=>Bar graphs are used to compare amounts.

=>Line graphs are used to show the change of one piece of information as it relates to another change.
=>Both bar and line graphs have an “X” axis (horizontal) and a “Y” axis (vertical).

=>Independent variables are  controlled by the experimenter.

=>Some independent variables are
time, dates, depth, and temperature.

=>Independent variables are placed on the X axis.

=>Dependent variables are directly affected by the independent variables.

=>A dependent variable  is the result of what happens as time, dates, depth and temperature are changed.

=>Dependent variables are placed on the Y axis.

=>Graphs show correlations between parameters.

=>The linear correlation is the simplest correlation between two experimental parameters.
=> The graph for a linear correlation  is a straight line.
=>Graphs  are used to explain experimental results.
=>Data tables are more specific about results than graph.
=>Graphs are tools to display data.

=>Graphs are used to display data for various reasons. They are easy to interpret. They display a large amount of information in a small  space. They are easy to draw.
=>Graphs are drawn in pencil with a ruler.
=>Both axes of a graph are  labeled.
=> All parameters of a graph have units.
=> Bar graphs are not used to display experimental data.
=>Every graph needs a descriptive title.
=>A graph shows the effect of x on y.
=>The X axis  shows the independent variable – this is the variable we intentionally change.
=A graph’s  Y axis should plot the dependent variable – this is the variable we measure.
=>To show the effect of changing temperature on rate of reaction temperature goes on X axis and rate goes on Y axis.
=>Scientists use graphs to examine the relationship between variables.
=>Theories predict how variables are related.
=>A  graph of the experimental data can  confirm or disprove a theory.
=>  The scientific method is the process of verifying or disproving theories by doing experiments.
=>Graphs are not used for small amounts of data that could be conveyed succinctly in a sentence.

=> Scientific method is a set of procedures to learn about the world.

=>Scientific findings are displayed in the tables, graphs and charts to illustrate data.
=>Line graphs show  the relationship between dependent and independent variables.
=>In data tables, the independent variable is listed in the first column and the dependent variable is listed to the right.

=>Bar charts compare amounts of something between unrelated groups.
=>Different types of graphs are appropriate for different experiments.

=>A bar graph is useful when you want to compare similar data for several individual items or events.
=>Data that change over a range are best represented by a line graph.

=>Making sure an experiment gives the results you expect is an example of unscientific thinking.

=>Since multiple uncontrolled variables confuse the results, you need to control all the relevant variables that could affect the result.

=>In a controlled experiment, one variable is changed while all others remain fixed.
=>Zoology is not included in physical science.

=> Physics deals most with energy and forces.
=>Using semiconductor to build computers is an example of  technology.

=>For all practical purposes, it is advantageous to assume that the universe obeys a set of rules.

=>Science is an attempt to discover and explain natural laws .

=>The most reliable way to discover the natural laws is called scientific inquiry.
=>Ancient people did not know  the explanation for qualities like hot or cold.
=>A scientific theory is a human attempt to describe a natural law.
=>Before 1843, scientists believed  that heat was a kind of fluid called ‘caloric’.
=>The caloric theory was given up when people learned to measure weight accurately.
=>An object has the same weight, hot or cold.

=>In 1842, a German doctor Julius Mayer first made a hypothesis that heat was a form of energy.

=>In 1843,James Joule experimentally proved that heat was a form of energy.

=> Scientists observe nature, then invent or revise hypotheses about how things work.

=>The hypotheses are tested against evidence collected from observations and experiments.

=> Any hypothesis which correctly accounts for all of the evidence from the experiments is a potentially correct theory.

=>A well-established hypothesis help scientists build  a theory.

=>A scientific theory summarizes a hypothesis or group of hypotheses.

=> In science the word ‘theory’ refers to the way that we interpret facts.

=>Every scientific theory starts as a hypothesis.

=> A scientific theory is the framework for observations and facts.
=>Theories may change, but the facts themselves don’t change.
=> A scientific theory is an elastic   bag of indeterminate shape to stuff more and more facts and observations.

=>Evolution  is a fact but the theories about evolution  might change.

=>A scientific theory is not the end result of the scientific method.

=>Theories can be proved,improved or rejected, just like hypotheses.
=>Theories don’t become laws.

=>A hypothesis is untested and subjective.
=> A theory is tested, and objective.

=>Hypotheses become theories with proper evidence.

=>To get a theory we need nature backing our hypotheses.

=>A theory is an explanation for a phenomenon.

=>A hypothesis is a prediction from collected data.
=>A  hypothesis is a speculation made from a very honest position of ignorance.

=>Theories that are useful here and now may not provide the same utility at other times, or at other locations.

=>A hypothesis is designed specifically for testing.
=>We cannot test a theory in a direct way.

=>Theories tend to be tested in a piecemeal fashion.

=>Some aspects of a theory are  tested in one study, while other aspects of the theory are tested in another.

=>A mathematical picture that  shows a pattern between two variables is a graph.

=>On a graph of two variables, the variable that causes changes in the other is the independent variable.
=>A quantity which can have many values is a dependent variable.

=> A situation set up to investigate the relationship between certain variables is called a scientific experiment.

=>A statement of what was learned in an experiment is called a conclusion.

=> The description of how an experiment is done, including equipment, techniques used and the type of data collected is the scientific method.

=>The variable that you change in an experiment is called the independent variable.

=>In an experiment, variables that are NOT allowed to change are controlled variables.
=>Laws are unlikely to change unless  major experimental errors are found.
=>The sum of all measured values divided by the number of measurements is called the average or mean  value.

=>An experiment  has three kinds of variables: independent, dependent, and controlled.
=>Hypotheses that can’t be tested by experiment:-A parallel universe exists that cannot be detected. An invisible superhero really exists.

=>Hypotheses that can be tested by experiment:-Steeper ramps result in higher speeds. Red apples taste better than green apples. Alien life forms are hiding on Earth.

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