PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Introduction to Science

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=> Physical science includes physics and chemistry.
=>Physics tells us how and why things move.
=>Chemistry tells us how to make things and what things are made of.

=>Chemistry describes the different forms of matter .
=>At the most basic level  a man is made of matter.
=>Matter is everything that has mass and takes up space.

=> Air is  matter.
=> Light is not matter.

=> Chemistry concerns the different kinds of matter.

=>Chemistry describes how living organisms use the food they eat.

=>Living organisms are made of chemicals known as proteins, fats and carbohydrates.

=>Biochemistry is a branch of chemistry to explore how plants and animals use chemicals and energy.

=>The sun is the source of energy for Earth.
=>Both living creatures and human technology get  almost all of their energy from the sun.
=>Without the Sun’s energy, Earth would be a cold icy place with a temperature of -273 degrees Celsius.

=>Plants store the solar energy in carbohydrates, like sugar. Animals eat the plants to get energy. Other animals eat those animals for their energy.
=>Energy is the ability for things to change. Nothing changes when no energy is exchanged.

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Mars is farther from the sun than Earth. The average temperature on Mars is well below the freezing point of water.
Some Antarctic bacteria live even below this temperature.

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=> Examples of scientific questions :- Why is the sky blue? How much does the earth weigh? How far away is the sun?  What is a black hole? How do airplanes fly? How do flies walk on the ceiling? How are rainbows made? Are sharks mammals?

=>“Where does the Sun come from?”  is a less scientific question than “How does  sunlight help us?”

=> A good scientific question builds on what we already know.

=>When questions arise on the basis of established knowledge, they have some real answers each with its particular hypothesis  confirmable by experimental observations.Such questions are called scientific questions.

=>Only scientific questions can be answered through science.

=>Only scientific questions ask about objects, organisms, and events in the natural world.

=> Only scientific questions can be answered through investigations that involve experiments, observations, or surveys.

=>Only scientific questions can be answered by collecting and analyzing evidential data  that is measurable.

=>A  scientific question is testable.

=>A hypothesis is a testable educated guess seeking an explanation for a set of observations or an answer to a scientific question.

=>A  scientific question is  based on observations not  imagination.

=>A  scientific question has  some actual answers.

=> A testable question is one that can be answered by designing and conducting an experiment.

=>Testable questions are always about changing one thing to see what the effect is on another thing.

=>The key steps in the scientific method are : making observations, formulating a hypothesis and testing the hypothesis through experimentation.

=>Some  questions still unanswerable by science:

What is reality? What is life? Do we have free will? Is the universe deterministic? What is consciousness? Will we ever have a theory of everything?

=>A scientific answer is  grounded in experience but bigger than that experience alone.

=>As members of society, scientists have a responsibility to use   their specialized knowledge and expertise in addressing societal issues and concerns.
=>The problem-solving approach of science is  called the scientific method.
=>The scientific method has five steps:-
Observation,Question,Hypothesis, Prediction and  Conclusion.
=>A biologist is a scientist who studies living organisms.
=>Science has helped form the world that we live in today.
=>Science is valued by society because the application of scientific knowledge helps to satisfy many basic human needs and improve living standards.

=>Science influences society through its knowledge and world view.
=>Scientific knowledge and methods  influence the way individuals think about themselves, others, and the environment.
=>The effect of science on society is neither entirely beneficial nor entirely detrimental.

=>A hypothesis is a testable but limited explanation.

=>A  scientific theory is an in-depth and confirmed explanation of the observed phenomenon.
=>A law is a  unifying proposal or  statement without an explanation  about an observed phenomenon.

=>Characteristics of a good question:- relevant, clear, concise,  purposeful, guiding but not leading , thoughtful and single-Dimensional.

=>Science begins by asking questions.

=>The five senses are seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling.
=>A hypothesis is the prediction.
=>An inference is conclusion used in forming a hypothesis.
=>Inference is based on previous knowledge.
=>Examples of some scientific laws: – Newton’s law of gravity, the laws of thermodynamics, Newton’s laws of motion, Coloumb’s law , Bernoulli’s principle, general relativity, Carnot’s theorem, Maxwell’s equations, and Brewster’s angle, etc.
=>A fact is a basic statement established under the specific conditions of the observation.
=> A “hypothesis” is “an educated guess.”
=>A “hypothesis” is a  tentative or suggested prediction based on evidence.
=>A hypothesis is very tentative; it can be easily changed.
=>According to the United States National Academy of Sciences,
“Some scientific explanations are so well established that no new evidence is likely to alter them. The explanation becomes a scientific theory.”
=>Theories allow scientists to make predictions about as yet unobserved phenomena.
=>Theories are not “guesses” but reliable explanations of the real world phenomenon.

=>Examples of some scientific theories:-
The theory of biological evolution, the atomic theory of matter  or the germ theory of disease.
=>Theories are explanations of natural phenomenon.
=>Theories  aren’t predictions.
=>We use theories to make predictions.
=> Theories are explanations why we observe something.

=>Theories don’t change overnight.

=>Theories can, indeed, be facts.
=>Theories can change.
=>Facts can’t change.

=>Theories aren’t likely to change.
=>Scientific laws are rules for how nature will behave under certain conditions.
=>Scientific laws are frequently written as an equation.
=>Theories explain why we observe what we do and laws describe what happens.

=>A law is a relationship that exists between variables.

=>Laws are the mysterious  patterns we see in large amounts of data.

=>A  belief is a statement that is not scientifically provable.
=> Beliefs may or may not be incorrect.

=>Theories are explanations and laws are patterns.

=>A hypothesis is a tentative prediction.
=>A theory is a well-supported explanation of observations.
=>A scientific law is a  summarized relationship between variables.
=>An experiment is a controlled method of testing a hypothesis.

=>Laws are generally descriptions of physical phenomena.
=>A hypothesis is an explanation for a narrow set of phenomena and a theory is an explanation for a relatively wide set of phenomena.

=>All hypotheses, theories, and laws involve facts.
=>Examples of scientific facts:-
Fish appear in the fossil record millions of years before mammals do. A dropped object falls to Earth. A gas expands when temperature rises if pressure is held constant.The ocean is salty.  It takes 365.25 Earth days for Earth to orbit around the Sun. Earth has one moon.

=>Hypotheses are proposed explanations for a narrow set of phenomena.

=>Theories  are explanations for a wide range of phenomena.

=>Hypotheses are reasoned and informed explanations. Read more about it.
=>Theories are not just hunches.

=> Laws cannot become hypotheses.Hypotheses cannot become theories.
=>Hypotheses, theories, and laws are all scientific explanations.
=>Hypotheses, theories, and laws differ in breadth (broader range of phenomena), not in level of support.
=> A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observation before it is confirmed by research.
=>Scientists propose a hypothesis before doing research as a way of predicting the outcome of study.

=>Scientific theories explain some broad aspect of the natural world and are based on solid evidence that has been confirmed over time.
=>Scientific laws describe natural phenomena, often mathematically.

=>Scientific theories can be tested.

=> Scientific theories are based on large amounts of data and observations that have been collected over time.

=>Scientific theories allow scientists to make predictions.
=> Scientific theories can be expanded and revised as new evidence is introduced or as existing data are interpreted differently.
=>Laws describe phenomena, while theories explain why phenomena exist.

=>Scientists  propose a hypothesis before doing research to  predict the outcome of a study and guide them as they design their research.
=> Some theories, like the theory of evolution by natural selection, are broad and encompass many concepts.
=>Scientific theories in one discipline can influence theories in other disciplines.

=> Scientific laws describe but do not explain an observed phenomenon.
=>An example of a scientific law is the law of gravity.
=>An example of a scientific theory is the theory of plate tectonics.
=> In order to be a scientist, a student  must practice the skill of making observations.

=>Looking up at the dark cloudy sky our experience  often predict that it might rain. It is an example of an inference.

=> A scientific method  is a process for answering questions.
=>An inference is a predicted but experienced  answer to a question based on observations.
=> An inference must be testable and isn’t always correct.

=>Data are information that is collected in order to answer a question. => A scientific method is a series of steps including observation, forming a question, stating a hypothesis, collecting data, and reaching a conclusion.

=>If we want to prove or disprove a hypothesis, we perform an experiment.
=> A theory is a statement that explains a complex idea such as a process for how Earth’s surface has changed over time.

=>A  law is a statement that describes an observed phenomenon such as why an object falls when you drop it.

=>Science is a process of gathering knowledge about the natural world.
=> Physical science  is the study of matter and energy.
=>Matter is the “stuff” that everything is made of.
=>Energy is the ability to do work.
=> Studying different forms of energy is what studying physics is all about.
=>Energy can make matter do some interesting things.
=> The study of Earth’s atmosphere, especially in relation to weather and climate, is called meteorology.

=>The study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth is called geology.
=> Physical science is divided into the study of physics and chemistry.

=>Chemistry studies the structure and properties of matter and how matter changes.
=>Physics looks at energy and the way that energy affects matter.

=> Energy is the ability to do work.

=>Air is made of matter.
=>All matter has energy.

=>Botany is the study of plants.

=>Observation is any use of the senses to gather information.

=>Noting that the sky is blue or that a cotton ball feels soft is an observation.
=>Measurements are observations that are made with tools.

=> A hypothesis is a tentative explanation because it hasn’t yet been tested.
=>
=> A theory is not  a “hunch” or “gut feeling”.

=> Theories are well tested, well supported attempts.

=>An example of a theory is the Big Bang theory; the idea that the universe is
expanding.

=>A law is considered to be a statement of fact.

=>Facts are repeatable.

=>Data refer to any pieces of information acquired through observation or experimentation.
=>Scientific methods are the ways in which scientists answer questions and solve problems.

=>Asking a question results from making an observation.
=>Questioning is the first step of using scientific methods.
=>A hypothesis is a possible explanation or answer to a question.

=>A good hypothesis is testable.

=>After testing a hypothesis, we need to  ana- lyze our results.
=>Analyzing involves calculations, tables, and graphs.
=>After analyzing the results, we draw conclusions about whether our hypothesis is supported.

=>Scientific methods are the ways in which scientists answer questions and solve problems.
=>Data are pieces of information that are gathered through experimentation.

=>Hypotheses are possible explanations or answers to a question.

=>A model is a representation of an object or system.
=>Models are never exactly like the real thing.

=> Scientific models are of three types- physical(dolls or drawings), mathematical (equations)and conceptual(big bang theory).

=>A theory not only explains an observation but also can predict what might happen in the future.

=>A law is a summary of many experimental results and observations.

=>Laws tell us only what happens, not why it happens.
=>A model uses familiar things to describe unfamiliar things.
=>Physical, mathematical, and conceptual models are commonly used in science.
=>A scientific theory is an explanation for many hypotheses and observations.

=>A scientific law sum- marizes experimental results and observations.
=>A physical model is used to represent a human heart.
=>A tool is anything that helps you do a task.

=>One way to collect data is to take measurements. To get the best measurements, we  need the proper tools.

=>Stopwatches, metersticks, and balances are tools  to make measurements.
=>Our brain processes information all the time. We use this information to make choices and solve problems.

=>The science process is like looking for a lost sock.

=>Inference is a statement based on experiences.
=>Science is  a process for answering questions.
=>A hypothesis is a possible answer to a scientific question based on observations.
=>
=>An experiment is like looking through a keyhole.
=> An experiment is an activity performed to support or refute a hypothesis.
=>

=>Chemists are involved in activities like making new medicines and figuring out the best way to refine oil to make gasoline.

=>Biology is the study of living things.

=>Astronomy is the study of stars and planets and anything else that is in space.

=>An observation is an accurate description of a thing or an event.
=>When practicing science, it is important to make observations without making opinions.
=>An astronomer looks through a telescope to see objects that are millions of miles away.
=>A microbiologist looks through a microscope to study small organisms like amoebas and bacteria that are millions of times smaller than us.

=>Acoustics is the science of designing objects based on how sound travels.
=>Scientific facts are statements that are accepted as being true after repeated  measurements or observations.

=>Meaningful questions can lead to a better understanding of the universe in which we live.
=> We study science for a better understanding of the world around us.

=>The development of technology is affected by society and vice versa.
=>Engineers need scientific information to develop products or solve problems.

=>Building a prototype is  the first step taken to find a technological solution.

=>Even a scientific theory might not always be true.
=>The independent variable is  known as the manipulated variable.
=>The independent variable is the only factor that can be varied or manipulated by the researcher.
=> A single independent variable  produces one or more results, known as dependent variables.

=> A controlled experiment is a scientific test.

=>A controlled experiment is  directly manipulated by a scientist.

=>A controlled experiment tests  a single independent variable at a time.

=>A controlled experiment shows  the effects of a variable on the system being studied.

=>A controlled experiment is one of the most common types of experiment.

=>Scientific studies are often made via controlled experiments.

=> In a controlled experiment
an observer tests a hypothesis by looking for changes brought on by alterations to a variable.

=>In a controlled experiment, an independent variable affects the dependent variable.

=>Graphing is a procedure to display the data during the result of an experiment.

=>There are three main types of graphs:- circle,bar and line.
=>Pie/circle graphs  are used to show parts of a whole.

=>Bar graphs are used to compare amounts.

=>Line graphs are used to show the change of one piece of information as it relates to another change.
=>Both bar and line graphs have an “X” axis (horizontal) and a “Y” axis (vertical).

=>Independent variables are  controlled by the experimenter.

=>Some independent variables are
time, dates, depth, and temperature.

=>Independent variables are placed on the X axis.

=>Dependent variables are directly affected by the independent variables.

=>A dependent variable  is the result of what happens as time, dates, depth and temperature are changed.

=>Dependent variables are placed on the Y axis.

=>Graphs show correlations between parameters.

=>The linear correlation is the simplest correlation between two experimental parameters.
=> The graph for a linear correlation  is a straight line.
=>Graphs  are used to explain experimental results.
=>Data tables are more specific about results than graph.
=>Graphs are tools to display data.

=>Graphs are used to display data for various reasons. They are easy to interpret. They display a large amount of information in a small  space. They are easy to draw.
=>Graphs are drawn in pencil with a ruler.
=>Both axes of a graph are  labeled.
=> All parameters of a graph have units.
=> Bar graphs are not used to display experimental data.
=>Every graph needs a descriptive title.
=>A graph shows the effect of x on y.
=>The X axis  shows the independent variable – this is the variable we intentionally change.
=A graph’s  Y axis should plot the dependent variable – this is the variable we measure.
=>To show the effect of changing temperature on rate of reaction temperature goes on X axis and rate goes on Y axis.
=>Scientists use graphs to examine the relationship between variables.
=>Theories predict how variables are related.
=>A  graph of the experimental data can  confirm or disprove a theory.
=>  The scientific method is the process of verifying or disproving theories by doing experiments.
=>Graphs are not used for small amounts of data that could be conveyed succinctly in a sentence.

=> Scientific method is a set of procedures to learn about the world.

=>Scientific findings are displayed in the tables, graphs and charts to illustrate data.
=>Line graphs show  the relationship between dependent and independent variables.
=>In data tables, the independent variable is listed in the first column and the dependent variable is listed to the right.

=>Bar charts compare amounts of something between unrelated groups.
=>Different types of graphs are appropriate for different experiments.

=>A bar graph is useful when you want to compare similar data for several individual items or events.
=>Data that change over a range are best represented by a line graph.

=>Making sure an experiment gives the results you expect is an example of unscientific thinking.

=>Since multiple uncontrolled variables confuse the results, you need to control all the relevant variables that could affect the result.

=>In a controlled experiment, one variable is changed while all others remain fixed.
=>Zoology is not included in physical science.

=> Physics deals most with energy and forces.
=>Using semiconductor to build computers is an example of  technology.

=>For all practical purposes, it is advantageous to assume that the universe obeys a set of rules.

=>Science is an attempt to discover and explain natural laws .

=>The most reliable way to discover the natural laws is called scientific inquiry.
=>Ancient people did not know  the explanation for qualities like hot or cold.
=>A scientific theory is a human attempt to describe a natural law.
=>Before 1843, scientists believed  that heat was a kind of fluid called ‘caloric’.
=>The caloric theory was given up when people learned to measure weight accurately.
=>An object has the same weight, hot or cold.

=>In 1842, a German doctor Julius Mayer first made a hypothesis that heat was a form of energy.

=>In 1843,James Joule experimentally proved that heat was a form of energy.

=> Scientists observe nature, then invent or revise hypotheses about how things work.

=>The hypotheses are tested against evidence collected from observations and experiments.

=> Any hypothesis which correctly accounts for all of the evidence from the experiments is a potentially correct theory.

=>A well-established hypothesis help scientists build  a theory.

=>A scientific theory summarizes a hypothesis or group of hypotheses.

=> In science the word ‘theory’ refers to the way that we interpret facts.

=>Every scientific theory starts as a hypothesis.

=> A scientific theory is the framework for observations and facts.
=>Theories may change, but the facts themselves don’t change.
=> A scientific theory is an elastic   bag of indeterminate shape to stuff more and more facts and observations.

=>Evolution  is a fact but the theories about evolution  might change.

=>A scientific theory is not the end result of the scientific method.

=>Theories can be proved,improved or rejected, just like hypotheses.
=>Theories don’t become laws.

=>A hypothesis is untested and subjective.
=> A theory is tested, and objective.

=>Hypotheses become theories with proper evidence.

=>To get a theory we need nature backing our hypotheses.

=>A theory is an explanation for a phenomenon.

=>A hypothesis is a prediction from collected data.
=>A  hypothesis is a speculation made from a very honest position of ignorance.

=>Theories that are useful here and now may not provide the same utility at other times, or at other locations.

=>A hypothesis is designed specifically for testing.
=>We cannot test a theory in a direct way.

=>Theories tend to be tested in a piecemeal fashion.

=>Some aspects of a theory are  tested in one study, while other aspects of the theory are tested in another.

=>A mathematical picture that  shows a pattern between two variables is a graph.

=>On a graph of two variables, the variable that causes changes in the other is the independent variable.
=>A quantity which can have many values is a dependent variable.

=> A situation set up to investigate the relationship between certain variables is called a scientific experiment.

=>A statement of what was learned in an experiment is called a conclusion.

=> The description of how an experiment is done, including equipment, techniques used and the type of data collected is the scientific method.

=>The variable that you change in an experiment is called the independent variable.

=>In an experiment, variables that are NOT allowed to change are controlled variables.
=>Laws are unlikely to change unless  major experimental errors are found.
=>The sum of all measured values divided by the number of measurements is called the average or mean  value.

=>An experiment  has three kinds of variables: independent, dependent, and controlled.
=>Hypotheses that can’t be tested by experiment:-A parallel universe exists that cannot be detected. An invisible superhero really exists.

=>Hypotheses that can be tested by experiment:-Steeper ramps result in higher speeds. Red apples taste better than green apples. Alien life forms are hiding on Earth.

7 thoughts on “PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Introduction to Science

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