Spacetime

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Einstein’s special relativity is called `Euclidean Relativity’.

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Up to Newton’s time, we had been treating ourselves as  localized lumps of mass-energy moving about in space over time. Einstein’s special relativity first assumed us as  long and narrow 4-dimensional tubes, branched with similar other tubes (manifested as our contacts with other objects,  people, consuming food, and excretions) at various points. 

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In Einstein’s relativity, birth is nothing but branching out from our mother-tube.

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In Einstein’s relativity, death  is nothing but our tube’s diffusion into many smaller tubes.

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In Einstein’s  general theory of relativity, gravity is a change in the geometry of spacetime near where 4-dimensional  tubes are present.

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Since the geometry of spacetime can change even in empty space, reality is more than 4-dimensional tubes. We need quantum mechanics to identity this extra ‘thing’ with fucctuaing quantum fields obeying Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

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Einstein’s special relativity ( that describes mass as curled up energy) has fused space and time into a four-dimensional “space”  called Minkowski spacetime.

His general relativity ( that describes gravity not as a force but as a spacetime  curvature ) treats this ‘elastic spacetime’ not as a passive background but as an active ingredient of reality.

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The relationship between circular and hyperbolic rotations  involves an imaginary number ( the square root of −1).

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If special relativity’s  time dimension is multiplied by  the square root of −1, Minkowski ‘spacetime’ turns  into a four-dimensional Euclidean ‘space’. 

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…………………………………………People of ancient Egypt and Greece speculated on the cyclic unity of time/existence/universe which never disappears but perpetually changes form to renew or flow back into itself.

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In Hinduism, ‘kalpa’ represents the repetitive cycles of time.

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The oldest-known ouroboros ( ‘tail-devourer’ in Greek)  on the golden shrine of Tutankhamen witnesses the fact that ancient Egyptians tried to  imagine time as a series of repetitive cycles, instead of something linear and constantly evolving.

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The flooding of the Nile and the journey of the sun made ancient Egyptians imagine  time as a series of repetitive cycles.

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‘One is All, and by it All, and for it All and if it does not contain All, then All is Nothing’.

– From ancient Egyptian papyrus

(Credit: Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin)

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The ouroboros is comparable to the Chinese yin and yang, depicting the harmony of contrary forces.

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People who quarrel about whether 

parallel lines intersect or not actually mistake a specific model for reality itself.

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Geometrical lines are mathematical memes/maps/models/abstractions 

of straight paths in the Universe. 

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In Euclidean model/geometry, infinitely extended parallel lines do not intersect. 

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In the memetic model of Lobachevski (hyperbolic or doubly-curved surface that resembles the shape of a saddle- convex  along one axis, and concave along the other), infinitely extended parallel lines intersect at one point. 

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In the geometry of Riemann (spherical surfaces), infinitely extended parallel lines cross twice.

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The number of intersections between infinitely extended parallel lines varies with the complexity/variety of  curved space geometries. 

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Both Euclidean and non-Euclidean   geometries are just models of the

observable Universe. 

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Maps/models/memetic narratives   characterize neither Universe nor reality.

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Maps/models/memes do not

constitute properties of reality/ Universe.

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The Universe/reality  is far more

complex than any model of it.

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Since reality  is infinitely more complex than any of its model, scientific

research will never end as long as this reality persists allowing the universe to exist. 

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Quantum field theory accounts for everything in the Universe except gravity. On the other hand, General Relativity explains the relationship between matter/energy and space/time, and describes what we experience as gravitation.
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Despite having nothing to do with light, gravitational waves travel at the speed of light. The speed of anything in motion is determined by the same things: its energy, momentum, and rest mass. Gravitational waves, like any form of radiation, have zero rest mass and yet have finite energies and momenta, meaning that they have no option: they must always move at the speed of light.

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The Earth is not gravitationally attracted to where the Sun is right now, but rather where the Sun was 8 minutes and 20 seconds ago.

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When a mass moves through a region of curved space, it will experience an acceleration owing to the curved space it inhabits. It also experiences an additional effect due to its velocity as it moves through a constantly changing spatial curvature. These two effects cause deviational changes from Newton’s gravity.

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The finite speed of gravity causes a change in the gravitational field that departs from Newton’s instantaneous change. It’s this tiny deviation that allowed us to first test whether Newton’s “infinite speed” or Einstein’s “light speed of gravity” matched the physics of our Universe.

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The speed of gravity should equal the speed of light so long as both gravitational waves and photons have no rest mass associated with them.

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“The black holes of nature are the most perfect macroscopic objects there are in the universe: the only elements in their construction are our concepts of space and time.”

  •  Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

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“A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life.”

 ― Charles Darwin

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We are savouring a universe having a derived quantity called Existence having Einsteinian/stringy dimensions!

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Everything in the universe has dimension, thereby it has presence.

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“Until we have firm understanding of the flow of time, or incontrovertible evidence that it is indeed an illusion, then we will not know who we are, or what part we are playing in the great cosmic drama.”

  • Paul Davies

Space is the condition for the existence of individual things.Time is the condition for the existence of individual events.


Space and time can be seen as emergent from a holographic worldview beyond the standard model.
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Time might be an illusion.
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Spatiotemporal continuum might just be an imaginary cognitive tool.
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Life is a braid in spacetime. …………………………………………

When you ask for my present address, you’re not really asking about the nature of spatiotemporal geometry, but rather about my relative location in it.

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We can think of space as a static stage where things change over time, or as an unchanging four-dimensional place called spacetime without any objective past or future. …………………………………………

We can think of the earth as an unchanging spiral shape in spacetime. …………………………………………

In static spacetime, the future is just as real as the past.

………………………………………… Spacetime as well as our entire physical reality might be a purely mathematical structure in the sense that it has no properties at all except mathematical properties, for example the number four, its number of dimensions. ………………………………………… Spacetime is an abstract, immutable mathematical structure existing outside of our familiar space and time.

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In astronomy, space is the vast three-dimensional region that begins where the earth’s atmosphere ends.
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According to Harvard University physicists Daniel Jafferis and Ping Gao, wormholes can actually exist, but moving through them would be too slow to  be ideal for humans.
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If wormhole travel is possible, figuring out a way to have light travel through wormholes could answer some questions about quantum gravity or black hole information problem.
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Wormholes  form between two black holes that connect at a quantum level. Scientists could retrieve information about black holes from the transmission of light through the wormhole.

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According to Einstein’s general theory of relativity,  wormholes can  connect different points billion light years apart, different points in time, or different universes.

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Black holes are entangled on a quantum level — and therefore the wormhole travel is not a shortcut .
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Since the wormhole is traversable, information could be extracted from a black hole.
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Negative energy is  inconsistent with quantum gravity. The  need for negative energy doesn’t allow to formulate traversable wormholes.
Jafferis has overcome this using quantum field theory tools.
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Since life is a  story by nature, we should ‘let it flow’ into several storylines simultaneously. It should be superposed like a quantum wave.
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Using entanglement to construct  space-time might  reconcile  quantum mechanics and general relativity.
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Gravity holding together the universe may not be fundamental, but arise from something else: quantum entanglement.
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“Quantum pair creation,” allows two particles to emerge from the vacuum. An electric field can catch such a pair of particles before they disappear back into the vacuum. Once extracted, these particles are considered entangled.
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Entanglement involves two particles, each occupying  superposition i.e. multiple states at once. Neither has a definite state until one is measured, causing the other particle to instantly assume a corresponding state, even if they reside on opposite ends of the universe.In string theory, the creation of two entangled particles simultaneously creates  a wormhole — a tunnel through space-time held together by gravity. Such a wormhole enables particles to communicate instantaneously.

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Since the creation of quarks simultaneously creates a wormhole, gravity might be a translation of  entanglement. The geometry, or bending, of the universe as described by classical gravity, may be a nickname for entanglement  between pairs of particles strung together by tunneling wormholes.

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When entangled black holes  are pulled apart, we get a wormhole — a tunnel through space-time. String theory’s holographic duality allows the emergene of gravity(spacetime curvature)  in the fifth dimension from entangled quarks in the fourth.We may  wonder what happens if some of this entanglement is lost.
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Despite being  a two-dimensional object, a  hologram contains all the information necessary to represent a three-dimensional view.
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The holographic duality allows the emergene of a more complex dimension from the next lowest dimension.
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Nonlocal quantum entanglement originates outside of or beyond 4D spacetime.
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“Amplituhedron” (quantum field theory) by Arkani-Hamed and Trnka allows the emergene of  locality from nonlocality.
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Since only spacetime can move faster than the speed of light, a wormhole might allow the emergene of  entanglement.
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Gravity/geometry in n+1 dimensions emerges from entanglement in n dimensions.
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AdS/CFT  is a duality between quantum gravity in terms of string theory and quantum field theory.
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Spacetime foam can be modeled as  a gas of virtual wormholes.
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Wormholes violate the null energy condition which requires the presence of an exotic (which does not exist in lab experiments) matter.
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A coherent set of virtual wormholes may work as an actual wormhole.
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Virtual wormholes diminish the energy density of zero-point fluctuations (i.e., the vacuum energy density).
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A black hole is a region of space so dense that nothing (even light) can escape its gravitational pull, and   most  parameters(space, time,etc) that define our reality lose all meaning.
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To see M87(a black hole at the heart of a galaxy at a 55 million light-years distant), we need a telescope as big as Earth itself. Computer scientist Katherine Bouman’s algorithm  allowed multiple radio telescopes around the globe to focus on the target simultaneously to get the first ever picture of a black hole.

 
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Einstein described gravity not as a force of attraction between masses (Isaac Newton’s view) but as a warping of space-time.
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Time  passes more slowly near a strong gravitational field.

 
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If matter become too dense, it would  collapse into a black hole.
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The in-falling material reaches such high speeds that it forms a hot, glowing disc — a blazing doughnut around M87.
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To be observable, a “distance” has to have a length of 10^-35 meter.
Time is “observable” as soon as it leaves a “zero” value.
A “volume” of “space”, which is “distances in all directions”, has to have a diameter of 10^-35 meter to be “observable”.
Before reaching a volume with a diameter of 10^-35 meter , only “distances-in-one-direction” or surface was rotating.
Space and time we inhabit, including ourselves, might be nothing more than  a two-dimensional hologram.
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Einstein’s space and time are inseparable and exist as an imaginary   structure called ‘spacetime’.
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Einstein’s general relativity states that spacetime is warped by energy (mostly mass-energy in the disguise of massive objects )and that gravity is a result of this warping.

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Philosophical speculations on blackholes or big bang singularities  may lead to breakthroughs in quantum computing by discovering proper methods of describing time on these scales.

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Though gavity operates directly on the particles composing us, we can detect it only when the many particles composing two bodies attract each other.

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Some quantum gravity physicists think of gravity as an emergent byproduct of quantum entanglement.
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