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“To suppose universal laws of nature capable of being apprehended by the mind and yet having no reason for their special forms, but standing inexplicable and irrational, is hardly a

justifiable position.”

-C S Peirce

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We need to accumulate facts and data to think cosmologically! So we experiment with phenomena of subsystems of the universe!

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LHC deals with the Higgs, unification, strings and extra dimensions!

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PLANCK deals with inflationary models, multiverse and bubble collisions!

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FERMI and AUGER deal with lorentz invariance and spacetime discreteness!

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The absolute Newtonian time in quantum mechanics is incompatible with the local dynamical (space-) time in general relativity!

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Metric is the geometric equation of distance between two points in a particular space!

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Metric is the geometry of a space!

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The spacetime interval

(ds2 = c2Δt2 – Δx2 – Δy2 – Δz2) functions like a distance between two points/events in Minkowski’s Four-Dimensional Space-Time!

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In quantum field theories, the Minkowski metric functions like Newton’s background spacetime!

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Topology is a spatial property invariant under any continuous deformation.

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Topology is called “rubber-sheet geometry” because the objects can be stretched and contracted like rubber, but cannot be broken.

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Merely geometric time is not enough for modern cosmology!

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Modern cosmology (quantum-gravity) hints at the inclusive reality of time!

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Naturalism holds that existential reality is independent of our senses!

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Timeless naturalism holds that the

entire history of the universe exists as a timeless whole! “Now” is as

subjective as “here”.

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Temporal naturalism holds that existential reality is identical with time!

There are no timeless objects, truths, facts or laws! “Now” is as

objective as a mathematical solution!

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Timeless naturalism supports the block universe interpretation of general relativity!

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In the nineteenth century, Charles Peirce first thought that physical laws might be better described as deeply embedded but nonetheless the acquired habits of the universe!

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A continual renewal of the capacity for habit forming and growth implies newer and newer physical laws with staggering possibilities for our universe!

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According to supersymmetric Standard Model, a sort of supersymmetric nothingness has broken into physical laws cumulatively manifested as a physical universe!

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Since supersymmetry is broken, supersymmetric particles can not be produced in reaction of ordinary particles!

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The explanation of the origin of physical laws demands some dynamics by which laws change!

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“Here are the laws we say; here are the laws, but how do they get to be that way in time? Maybe physics really has a historical component. ”

-Richard P. Feynman

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In the nineteenth century, Charles Peirce first thought that physical laws might be created through the processes of evolution!

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In the nineteenth century, Charles Peirce first thought that physical laws might not be unchanging but evolves along with the forms and structures of our temporally evolving cosmos!

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In the nineteenth century, Charles Peirce first thought that physical laws

might not apply to everything for all time!

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Perhaps physical laws didn’t pre-date the universe!

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“The consciousness of a

general idea has a certain

‘unity of the ego’ in it,

which is identical when it

passes from one mind to

another. It is, therefore,

quite analogous to a

person, and indeed, a

person is only a particular

kind of general idea.”

-Charles Peirce

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“Looking out of my window

this lovely spring morning I

see an azalea in full bloom.

No, no! I do not see that;

though that is the only way

I can describe what I see.

That is a proposition, a

sentence, a fact; but what I

perceive is not proposition,

sentence, fact, but only an

image which I make

intelligible in part by

means of a statement of

fact. This statement is

abstract; but what I see is

concrete.”

-Charles Peirce

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According to Smolin, nature has been unreasonably mathematised by theoretical physicists!

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Galileo first discovered that falling bodies follow a simple mathematical curve!

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Newton first showed that the same force propels falling apples along Galileo’s ‘mathematical curve’ and the earth along its orbit around the sun! Since then we have been unreasonably worshipping our mundane universe like some timeless and platonic mathematical curve!

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According to Smolin’s new book “Time Reborn”, the laws of physics are not final, fixed and immutable, but evolve over time!

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In a universe of time and evolution, nothing stays fixed, immutable, and unchanging!

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According to a book named “Time Reborn” by Lee Smolin, time is the most real thing that can be.

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When one tries to express quantum mechanics in ordinary language, the resultant statements defy common sense! ‘Non-local interaction’ between quantum (sub-atomic) particles has no classical analogue!

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Smolin professionally works on “loop quantum gravity.”

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“People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction between past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.”

-Einstein

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Most theoretical physicists believe that time is an illusion- a sort of subjective emergence!

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According to Smolin, mathematical timelessness is alien to our physical reality! Smolin thinks that gravity can be unified with quantum mechanics if time is fundamentally and objectively real!

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Smolin thinks that a statement must be comprehensible enough to be true!

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Smolin thinks that physicists are too overwhelmed by the eternal truths of mathematics (timelessness of equations/geometric relations) to accept the reality of time!

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Smolin thinks that most physicists

mistake merely memetic models(mathematics) for reality!

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According to Smolin, mathematical timelessness is alien to our physical reality!

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Timelessness, though a feature of mathematics, might not be a feature of our physical universe!

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“Either the world is in essence mathematical or it lives in time.”

-Lee Smolin

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Mathematics deals with the figments of our imagination ( numbers, curves, etc.), whereas physics deals with things that really exist!

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According to Smolin, physical laws should be immune to the metaphysical fantasy of transcendence from our mundane existence!

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Lee Smolin believes in neither string theory nor in mainstream quantum mechanics. He attempts to discover(or invent?) an alternative atomic theory.

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Lee Smolin’s books include The Trouble with Physics (2006) and Time Reborn (2013).

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“Only dead fish swim with the stream.”

- Malcolm Muggeridge

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Smolin’s books are basic enough for high-school science students to grasp.

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Smolin acknowledges that the quantum mechanics gave a far better account of the atomic world than ‘classical’ theories.

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The mathematics of quantum mechanics had arrived before physicists began to interpret it.

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People like Maxwell ,Einstein and Smolin (part natural philosopher, part theoretical physicist ) can’t help speculating on the fundamental meanings of space, time, reality or existence.

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Like Einstein, Smolin thinks that we inhabit a real deterministic world whose existence is independent of observations.This view is incompatible with the wavelike quantum probability awaiting an observer enjoying a definite outcome.

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Smolin delves into modern interpretations of quantum mechanics, only to dismiss them.

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Smolin’s ansatz applies to both quantum mechanics and space-time.

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Smolin’s time is irreversible and fundamental.

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In Smolin’s time, events are too basic to be explained in terms of more basic processes.

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Unlike Smolin’s time, Smolin’s space is not fundamental.

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Smolin’s space emerges from something more basic processes.

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Before the eyes of sceptics like Smolin, a lot of revolutionary ideas about space and time are emerging from a union of the standard quantum mechanics and relativity.

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Conservative quantum field theory is a descendant of Maxwell’s theory of electricity and magnetism.

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Experiments have revealed no juicy interpretations concerning the inner workings of atoms for some 20 years.

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Although quantum mechanics can’t tickle the fancy of the philosophically minded, it has proved to be a super reliable tool for experimentalists.

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In Smolin’s speculation, all of the parts of the universe are linked across both space and time in a similar way.

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In Smolin’s speculation, the laws of physics evolve over the history of the universe.

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In Smolin’s cosmological natural selection, black holes are cosmic eggs to hatch new universes.

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Smolin’s principle of precedence is about the emergence of the laws of quantum mechanics.

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Smolin’s principle of precedence arises as an answer to the question of why physical phenomena are reproducible.

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Though we simply attribute consistent outcomes to the action of a natural “law” that acts the same way at all times, Smolin suspects that those laws evolves over time, as quantum systems copy the ‘past behavior’ or ‘precedent’ of similar systems.

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Smolin’s ‘raw’ laws emerge from the initial random responses. The rule of response gets strengthened and predictable if precedence builds up.

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Smolin’s conception of space as a fundamental thing is as absurd as saying that air is more fundamental than atoms.

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“The lesson of general relativity, again and again, is the triumph of relationalism.”

Lee Smolin

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Smolin suspects that quantum mechanics is a theory of ‘mere subsystems’ of the universe.

Unlike quantum chunks,

Smolin’s universe is a single enormous system like general relativistic reality as the relationships between objects and between different regions of space.

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“General relativity is not a description of subsystems. It is a description of the whole universe as a closed system.”

Lee Smolin

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The behavior of each part is inextricably related to that of every other part. Relativistic inertia exists only when we can measure it against the entire cosmic gravitational field. We need a referential external universe to say which astronaut between the two is spinning.

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What holds true in a logical thought experiment holds true for the real world.

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