Life

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Saturn’s moon Enceladus has the same organic molecules that took on ‘life’  on earth.

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Saturn’s moon Enceladus has some kind of organic molecules which can play the role of precursor molecule of life.

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Saturn’s moon Enceladus  is the most reflective heavenly body in our solar system due to  it’s clean icy surface.

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Amino acids are the building blocks of life. According to Cassini’ last data, the ingredients of amino acids ( nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing organic compounds ) are abundant in the warm depths of Enceladus’ ocean’. Enceladus is one of those celestial bodies near us where the probability of finding life-like-chemical pathways is high.

 

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Richard Dawkins’ “The Selfish Gene” algorithmechanically and Nick Lane’s “POWER, SEX, SUICIDE-
Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life” energetically (pun intended) back up Darwin’s theory of evolution.

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Life’s a romance between energy and information.

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Life is more Darwinian drudgery than cosmic existence.

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Life ,as a  local Darwinian cycle, is a precarious pathway off a global entropic cycle.

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Life is a lottery where the jackpot ITSELF leaves no adaptive stone unturned to reach (or build?) us.

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Even a stone treats ( or feels?) itself as a dynamic structure just as a so-called living body. To a stone, a man appears to be more a thing than a process.

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Like everything else, life is both energy and information.

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Life’s an evolving feedback loop

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A chemical feedback system has evolved into ‘life’.
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Life’s an inner expansion

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“The atoms of our bodies are traceable to stars that manufactured them in their cores and exploded these enriched ingredients across our galaxy, billions of years ago. For this reason, we are biologically connected to every other living thing in the world. We are chemically connected to all molecules on Earth. And we are atomically connected to all atoms in the universe. We are not figuratively, but literally stardust.”
– Neil deGrasse Tyson

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A black hole is the collapse of the LOCAL space-time due to extreme gravity due to a huge amount of mass.

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Black holes expand in, not out. Such inner expansion increases inner complexity.
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Structures like strings,quarks, atoms, molecules or living organisms might be the result of a sort of inner complexity or disguised cosmic growth.

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When we download a movie onto our smart phone, it gets ‘expanded’ on the inside.

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When we add data to a hard drive, it gets ‘computationally’ bigger.

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DNA works like a ‘fragile hard drive’ storing information about a local spatio-temporal growth or changes. Perhaps the spontaneous processing of these very data is enjoyed as ‘life’ by ‘contingent containers’ like us.

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“Literally the stuff of which we’re made came from the deep interior of stars that exploded, and we evolved by the very same laws and rules that the rest of the universe evolves by.” – Brian Greene

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“I think it’s a very, very interesting question whether the cosmological growth of space is connected to the growth of some kind of complexity and whether the cosmic clock, the evolution of the universe, is connected with the evolution of complexity. There, I don’t know the answer.”
-Susskind

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A photon is not a thing but a wave or signal or information or change in electromagnetic field. Such a change can be viewed as either particle(photon) or wave(light).

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Black holes (i.e. dense masses) so tightly squeeze space-time locality that even information ( i.e. light ) loses its escape velocity and gets trapped………………………………………….

In general relativity, space and time together behave like a smooth rubber sheet. The mass of a heavy object dimples the geometry of spacetime.
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Biological evolution explains diversification of plants and animals by variation and natural selection. The origin of life is still UNKNOWN. Perhaps life started as a chemical system.

Cosmological evolution explains the formation of galaxies, stars or planets by an expanding big bang model of our universe. The origin of the universe is still UNKNOWN. Perhaps our universe started as a quantum system.
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“ Respond to every call that excites your spirit. ”
― Rumi

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“Humanity as an abstract doesn’t exist; humanity is the human being.”
Eckhart Tolle
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“You are not IN the universe, you ARE the universe, an intrinsic part of it. Ultimately you are not a person, but a focal point where the universe is becoming conscious of itself. What an amazing miracle!”

Eckhart Tolle

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“On a deeper level you are already complete. When you realize that, there is a joyous energy behind what you do.”
Eckhart Tolle

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“The Truth is far more powerful than any weapon of mass destruction.”

  • Gandhi
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    “Life is an adventure, it’s not a package tour.” ~ Eckhart Tolle

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“Most people treat the present moment as if it were an obstacle that they need to overcome. Since the present moment is life itself, it is an insane way to live.”

Eckhart Tolle

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“Time isn’t precious at all, because it is an illusion.”

Eckhart Tolle

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According to Richard Dawkins’  famous book “The Selfish Gene”(1976), neither species nor individual beings play  central role in evolution. Living things serve as  useful “packages” for genes’ survival in harsh enviromrnt.

 

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According to Richard Dawkins’  famous book “The Selfish Gene”(1976), life on this planet emerged as the byproduct of multiplying replicators’(DNA molecules) survival  in more and more

precariously effective ways.

 

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Life is the enterprise to explore the vistas of  existence (something projected but still embedded in abstract reality).

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“The simplest meaning of life, then, is joy– the exhilaration of experience itself, of physical well-being; sheer satisfaction of muscle and sense, of palate and ear and eye. Even if life had no meaning except for its moments of beauty, that would be
enough.”

-Will Durant

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“Where is the Life we have lost in living?”

-T. S. Elliot

 

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“To follow knowledge like a sinking star, Beyond the utmost bound of human thought.”
-Alfred Tennyson

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“I’ll drink life to the lees.”
-Alfred Tennyson

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The formation of the first replicator seems less improbable in metabolism‐first (monomer-rich) theories explaining life’s origin.

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Life may have begun with the spontaneous formation of a replicating organic polymer(perhaps RNA) within an unorganized chemical mixture.The very first template may have emerged as an information‐bearing homopolymer.

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Meaning and matter are apparently alienated aspects of reality.

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Only Darwinian evolution by natural selection unites ‘matter’ with ‘meaning’ since the latter arises from the former.

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Only Darwinian evolution by natural selection unites ‘matter’ with ‘life’ since the former evolved into the latter.

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Only Darwinian evolution by natural selection unites ‘matter’ with ‘mind’ since the latter arises from the former.

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“Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy. All the rest – whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the mind has nine or twelve categories – comes afterwards. These are games; one must first answer.”

-Albert Camus

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“The atoms of our bodies are traceable to stars that manufactured them in their cores and exploded these enriched ingredients across our galaxy, billions of years ago. For this reason, we are biologically connected to every other living thing in the world. We are chemically connected to all molecules on Earth. And we are atomically connected to all atoms in the universe. We are not figuratively, but literally stardust.”
– Neil deGrasse Tyson

 

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A black hole is the  collapse of the LOCAL space-time due to extreme gravity due to a huge amount of mass.

 

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Black holes expand in, not out. Such inner expansion increases inner complexity.
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Structures like strings,quarks, atoms, molecules or living organisms might be the result of a sort of inner complexity or disguised cosmic  growth.

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When we download a movie onto our smart phone, it gets ‘expanded’ on the inside.

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When we add data to a hard drive, it gets ‘computationally’ bigger.

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DNA works like a ‘fragile hard drive’ storing information about a local spatio-temporal   growth or changes. Perhaps the spontaneous processing of these very data is enjoyed as ‘life’ by ‘contingent containers’ like us.

 

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When available molecular materials were churned with available free energy, numerous forms or patterns came into being. Life belongs to those numerous forms or dynamic patterns.

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Metabolism had been mere algorithm ( blind information processing) before nucleic acid (information storage) infected and manipulated it. Not information processing but information storage initiated the origin of life.
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The origin of life is still shrouded in mystery because of many differing models.

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Since many lineages of organisms have gone extinct, molecular machinery of life at its origin might not be present in extant organisms. But to empirically solve the mystery of the origin of life, we have to depend on the continuity of biology.

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Hadean =of pre-geological times  represented by hellish and molten earth during the formation of the solar system. Hades is the Greek god of the underworld.

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The panic of certainty(HUP) gradually creates more and more complex scenarios like fields, quarks, atoms, molecules,stars, planets, blackholes,universes , organisms, memes, civilizations and so on. Simpler states are used as default locals.
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In automata theory, simple algorithmic steps produce gradually emerging complexity.
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When intermolecular arrangemental information manipulates the dynamics of the host molecules, chemistry becomes life.
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Life is a digitally algorithmic takeover.
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Chemical reactions process analog information (actual molecules) algorithmically, by the influence of weird arrangement of molecules in DNA or digital(sorry, deoxyribo) nucleic acid.
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Life is the manipulation of molecular dynamics by molecular information.
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A digital algorithmic system began to control metabolism i.e. “analog” life.
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Feedback from the environment  changes algorithmic rules  over time.
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Evolving complexity is the inevitable byproduct of algorithms, digital information and environmental feedbacks .
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Black-boxing is like putting a box around a neuron to measure the box’s overall inputs and outputs, instead of its inner workings. It is  a way of measuring  causal emergence in a single neuron that isn’t amenable to coarse-graining of its component atoms. Black-boxing measurement is used in  biological and engineering systems.
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Life began when algorithms took control.
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Various nonliving molecules  accumulated and initiated metabolism, reproduction and eventually evolution.
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Among structural, informational and chemical roles, informational role transformed nonliving molecular chemistry into life.
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Not information processing but information storage initiated the origin of life.
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Metabolism was mere algorithm (information processing) before nucleic acid (information storage) infected it.
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Just like an algorithmic computer program, metabolic chemical reactions “process” input information into output products.
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Life began when stored information controlled chemical reactions.
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Life began when information manipulated the matter.
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Life is information’s control over the matter containing it.
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Life is context-dependent causation.
People would rather suffer than commit suicide, provided they are chosen as the hosts of memes( like love for dear ones to tie to or a talent to be used or  a memory worth cherishing) .

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Duality is the best cognitive tool to explain organism  (hydrothermal gene colonising earth ) and free will(savanna meme colonising multiverse ).

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Metal- carbon dioxide (CO2) reaction on the early Earth is a sort of duality for microbial CO2 use (Either CO2 itself or more reactive carbon-based molecules such as hydrogen cyanide or formaldehyde).

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Atom’s orbital electrons power both industrial (non living) and cellular(living) factories.
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Even living cells are powered by electrons.
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Living cells are powered by electrons from food .
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Most cells use electrons from food for a living , but some bacteria live on pure electricity.
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Life is actually a circuit with a source(food) and a dump(oxygen) for electrons.
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Cherishing a single unjust belief means to give licence to many other unjust beliefs and behaviours enough to ruin one’s life.
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Life is to use water as electron donor.
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All organisms, from a bacterium to a blue whale, need a source of electrons, and a place to dump them.
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When a battery’s chemicals are converted into other substances, ions (atoms with too few or too many electrons) are attracted by two dissimilar (donor and acceptor of electrons) metals , but electrons march from one metal to the other through the outer circuit, powering a light bulb.
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Life refers fundamentally to some physical processes (typical of a hadean planet) extant in the form of many symbiotic groups.
Such processes include electricity (oxidation – reduction), natural selection (stabilisation), replication (molecular bonding and splitting),
information processing (environmental feedback), etc.
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Electricity-eating bacteria nearest to the electrode grow biological wires to supply electricity to other microbes.
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To remain alive, organisms harness energy in the form of electrons.
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By enzymes the electrons from sugar are released to join oxygen releasing kinetic energy.
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Organisms living in low-oxygen environments ‘breathe’ in iron, sulphur or even hydrogen (HIS ).
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Geobacter metallireducens get their electrons from organic compounds, and pass them onto iron oxides.
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Geobacter bacteria live on energy sources unavailable to other lifeforms.
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In future, microbial fuel cells of seaweed, urine or sewage can power our smartphones.
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Shewanella oneidensis can “eat” electrons directly from minerals and rocks.
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Some bacteria take their electrons directly from iron and sulphur in the seabed.
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Electron-eating and electron-excreting microbes pass electrons between each other.
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Seabed-microbes get electrons from dead algae and animals and supply methane directly and electrons via wires to archaea. The archaea feed on electrons from methane, oxidising the gas to generate carbonate.They then pass the electrons on to their partner bacteria along the nanowires, which act like power cables. Finally the bacteria deposit the electrons onto sulphate, producing energy that the cell can use in the process.
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Electronic cooperation may have evolved in the low-oxygen past . The first bacterium takes electrons from sulphide and passes them on to the next cell, and so on until the final bacterium can dump the electrons onto oxygen.
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In the human gut chains of magnetite can form, bridging the gap between the electron-donating and the electron-accepting bacteria.
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At the bottom of the ocean or deep underground, there is not enough energy for an organism to evolve. They just exist in their primordial forms .
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‘Oxidation-reduction’ is a dualism for ‘growth’. Nature is an office without departmental branches. Biology =Physics.
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Astrobiologists need just an electrode to look for evidence of extraterrestrial life.
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Many of primitive lifeforms – such as bacteria and archaea – are still thriving without oxygen.
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Life exploded when oxygen became available in the atmosphere and ocean. Oxygen is more efficient for the production of energy.
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Inside mitochondria, nutrients and oxygen generate ATP, the economical energy storage . Bacteria and archaea lack complexity because they lack the mitochondria.
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Some primitive bacteria could use protons instead of oxygen as their electron dump.
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EVERY  scientific fact works like a filter for human thoughts, behaviours, priorities and responsibilities.
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A scientific fact lightens the burden of  unnecessary concerns.
EVERY  scientific fact updates us.
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We don’t need to remember that we’re made of proteins, haemoglobin , blood and chemicals to enjoy the daily life. But the knowledge makes us prefer a hospital to a temple for a snakebitten patient . Likewise, the knowledge of the ultimate ingredients of the Universe provides us with better models to predict events, invent new  technologies, behave logically and escape any dinosaur-like-extinction .
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All reactions which involve electron flow are known as oxidation-reduction reactions (or redox reactions).
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The flow of electrons provides energy to about 39 trillion bacterial cells living among 30 trillion human cells.
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We have a higher concentration of bacteria in our guts than in other body parts.
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200 different types of human cells include red blood cells (erythrocytes), skin cells, neurons (nerve cells), fat cells,etc.
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Cells in the brain are longer in shape to transmit signals.
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Cells of the heart have more mitochondria because they need a lot of energy.
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There are three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
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25 trillion Red blood cells (RBCs) are over 80 percent of all cells.
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Women have fewer RBCs than men.
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People living at higher altitudes have more RBCs .
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RBCs live for about 120 days.
Cells in the brain stay alive throughout a person’s life.
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Mature red blood cells host hemoglobin and so have no
mitochondria or other organelles.
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Mature red blood cells have no
mitochondria and depend on anaerobic fermentation.
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Eye’s lens fibers (sacks of clear protein)  have no mitochondria or other organelles.
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Cancer cells can sometimes shift to anaerobic metabolism as they deregulate cell metabolism. This shift is a ‘hallmark of cancer’.
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Muscle cells shift to anaerobic respiration ( using lactic acid as the terminal electron acceptor ) when sufficient oxygen is not available.
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When sufficient oxygen is not available, cells don’t instantly die because of lactic acid production i. e. fermentation.
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Lactic acid reaches a concentration high enough to stimulate pain receptors to metabolise itself .
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Oxygen acts as the terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.
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Cellular respiration is a redox reaction to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into usable energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
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—————————————– Glycolysis turns 6C glucose into two 3C molecules of Pyruvate to help it enter the mitochondria.
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—————————————– Aerobic respiration requires oxygen in order to generate energy molecule ATP, where as an anaerobic respiration generate ATP with inorganic molecules other than oxygen.
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For plants, the upper and lower ends of the light spectrum are the wavelengths that split water (H 2O) during photosynthesis,to release its electrons for the  reduction of carbon dioxide (CO 2) and the release of diatomic oxygen (O2 ) to the atmosphere.
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Biological oxidation-reduction reactions produce large amounts of Gibbs free energy to be synthesised into the energy unit called adenosine triphosphate or ATP.
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We exhale carbon dioxide and water.
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Physics is all that  is, ever was or ever will be. To gain any knowledge of biological processes, we must start with redox potential of such a system. Only a redox perspective allows us to view physics as chemistry and chemistry as ‘biology’.
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The universe is more a verb than a noun. HUP decrees ‘changes’ initially to homogeneous primordial supersymmetric omnipotent super-field and then to homogeneous quantum foam. Changes get enough time to interact with the default as well as the other changes. Similarly changing processes fall spontaneously into symbiotic groups giving rise to phylogeny.
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Our identity is best revealed in a  cosmic context, through the eyes of evolution.
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Evolution is to get a new form as the sum total of many small but gradually accumulated changes .
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Carbohydrates, proteins,lipids and nucleic acids– are the four macromolecules to build an organism. —————————————–
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Since HUP distorts  homogeneity,  Supersymmetry/Nothingness > Fields > Particles > Atoms >  Molecules > Monomers >  Polymers > Organisms.
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Proteins are polymers of multiple monomer units called amino acid.
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22 major amino acids, along with hundreds of other minor amino acids, keep up the hardware for life  on earth.
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Everything should be looked at with an evolutionary perspective.
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The Hadean eon
represents the molten Earth.
Archean eon represents bacteria and archaea.
The Proterozoic eon represents oxygen in atmosphere.
Phanerozoic eon represents
human.
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To investigate life’s origin, physics must be tallied with phylogenics.
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First organic molecule in the known universe?
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Amino acids are one of the first organic molecules to appear on Earth.
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Organisms need to synthesize most of the Amino acids ,the main ingredients for cellular metabolism.
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More than five hundred amino acids are in nature, but only twenty-two build proteins i.e. organisms.
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The mystery shrouding ‘life’ can be reduced by recognizing it just as a chaotic ( accidental but naturally selected) coupling of  redundant redox reactions,protonation ,thermodynamics, entropy ,crystalization,fractal formation and information processing typical of a hadean planet.

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Amino acids are all in one .They function as building blocks of proteins,
energy metabolites, nutrients and even chemical messengers.
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Amino acids all have a common foundation or “backbone” held together by  carbon atoms. An extra sidechain of atoms is different for every amino acid.
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“Amino acid space”, the set of plausible amino acids that could have been used , explains ‘why just 22’.
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Amino acids with a single carbon connector are called alpha amino acids. If more than one , they are called beta amino acids and so on.
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Amino acids can be produced abiotically in meteorites and interstellar medium.
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Isomers are variations of each amino acid by shuffling the atoms around.  Thus a definite molecular formula generating many different chemical structures gives  an “isomer space”.
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This isomer space depends on how many atoms there are in the acid.
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The Murchison meteorite has at least 75 amino acids in it.
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The amino acid space is beyond the isomers.
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Hadean earth had simple chemicals. Gradually they became amino acids , proteins , cells and organisms-one turning into the next.
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Only a redox perspective allows us to view life as ‘energy transfer ‘ or’ electricity’.
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To really tackle the ecological precariousness, we should discover our ‘selves’ or ‘agents’ within phylogenic physics.
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Electron flow from food to oxygen fills proton dam to  push or pull cellular molecules whenever needed to perform tasks collectively called ‘life’. Just like our home, evolved organisms depend on a safe circuit called ‘digestive system’.
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Life is one of the chances of releasing energy stored in field excitations out of symmetry breaking later coupled with phylogenic stresses dubbed as pain, pleasure or meme.
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Life is an angst.
Life is the stream of angst and joy.
Life is the stream of consciousness.
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Life is a thermodynamically open system with inputs and outputs.
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Cell is  an ‘umbrella term’ for metabolism,growth and procreation.

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Nucleic acid is a storage system for environmental stresses with digital cogs or algorithmic programmes in the form of molecular pattern-change affecting future interaction with the environment.
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If there is a probability of exactly 1 that life should emerge somewhere in a million billion chances (planets), we must find ourselves on that one.
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In an almost infinite universe there is always a probability of life emerging on at least few planets, and we must find ourselves on one of them.
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Even if our scientists succeed in creating ‘life’ from abiotic molecules it will merely indicate that such things are possible.It might not be how life actually emerges in the universe .
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“The secrets of evolution are death and time. The deaths of enormous numbers of lifeforms that were imperfectly adapted to the environment; and time for a long succession of small mutations that were by accident adaptive; time for the slow accumulation of patterns of favorable mutations.”
– Carl Sagan
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The Sun has a limited fuel reserve.
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We are the product of  4.5 billion years of evolution on Earth but 13.7 billion years of evolution in the universe.
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An eternal context  has given  birth to physical universe, stars,planets, plants, animals and other ephemerals.
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During the origin of life, the earth would rotate so speedily that  just a quarter of 24hrs was enough to make a day.The speed of the hadean planet churned the seething undersea chemical cauldron to cook ‘life’.
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During the origin of life, the earth was all water, except a few volcanic islands.
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During the origin of life in the seething undersea chemical cauldron, the moon was closer and bigger but  the sunlight was weak due to orange (CH4) smog and water vapour.
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‘Sea’ is a far better name than ‘Earth’ for our planet.
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Without a space suite, eyes bulge and burst on airless Mars.
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Oceans cover three-fourths of our planet.
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From space,the earth is  all water.
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During the origin of life, underground magma made the undersea crust  riddled with cracks.
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The geological restlessness of the hadean earth evolved into ‘life’, a chemical restlessness in a new package.
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Individual immortality is bound to hamper variation , adaptability , natural selection , evolution and emergence of higher intelligence – biological as well as artificial.
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Individual immortalists might hamper the development of higher levels of evolution.
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Nature must be wasteful to discover what we call ‘life’.
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99.9 % of species are now disappeared. So we must take care of our own species.We must embrace science as the saviour.
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The hierarchy of physical processes serves as  scaffolding for next level evolution.
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In biological evolution, every generation serves as scaffolding to update the default status for the next generation.
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“Believing as I do that man in the distant future will be a far more perfect creature than he now is, it is an intolerable thought that he and all other sentient beings are doomed to complete annihilation after such long-continued slow progress. What can we do? What if we challenge the assumption of intelligence having no influence on the future? What if life and intelligence could have influence on the future of the cosmos?”
-Darwin’s reaction to the heat death of the universe.
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“Intelligent information- processing must come into existence in the Universe, and, once it comes into existence, it will never die out.” -Barrow and Tipler
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“Reproduction is not something that belongs to living organisms by some miraculous linkage, but is simply a specialized means of adaptation of a specialized class of disturbances”.
-Ashby
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‘Life’ is the old-fashioned name for ‘adaptability’.Reproduction proved to be far more evolutionarily economical than immortality to maintain ADAPTABILITY.
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Unchangable rules of Mathematics and Geometry represent our strongly grounded physical existence, not vulnerable to any malicious will or ‘abracadabra’.

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None can make us vanish by uttering ‘abracadabra’ for the same reason that no magic can make two straight lines of the same plane  intersect in more than a single point.
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The emergence of life is enigmatic because the mystery lies in  smelling  a general trend out of just one example.
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Either as a thermodynamically open system or as a data cruncher, there is no need for a living system to die, as long as it can draw and dump electrons as input and output.
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A bristlecone pine tree has been living among us for more than four thousand years.
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The jellyfish can reverse its life cycle to have an indefinite lifespan.
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Physical processes appear to be  the loose ends of coloured threads weaving the tapestry of reality.Since a single cord is enough to be tangled,   physical processes tend to tangle into complex and hotchpotch like things like ‘cosmos’, ‘life’ or ‘consciousness’. Life is such a tangled tuft of coloured cords.
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Our survival-mechanical crave for a miraculous existential status  of ‘life’, can’t change the indifferent physics-abiding  ‘nature’ of ‘natural life’, just like a stone or a liquid.
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In ice, every hydrogen atom is involved in hydrogen bond.
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Physics and mathematics are weird enough to invent ‘universe’,  ‘life’ or any such mindblowing ‘things’.
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Plants  get electrons from water .Animals  get electrons from sugar. Live electronic circuit makes and maintains proton dam in both. Life’s turbine is run by leaking protons.

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Quantum mechanics might be an inherent characteristic of life.
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There might be a quantum origin of life.
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Three main philosophical views on the nature of life are ( 1)reductive physicalism , (2) systemic emergentism through the merging of geothermal energetics, electron gradient, proton gradient,  metabolism , replication and many such ‘mere’ abiotic processes and (3) quantum algorithm  increasing the eternal  probabilities of existence of auto replicative structures.
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Transcription, translation or mutations in DNA can be interpreted as the quantum noise processes.
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Bizarre quantum effects can be utilized in biotechnology. There are even quantum mechanical models of aging,  tumors, cancer or  intracellular dynamics.
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Quantum mechanics can explain  coherent transport of electron excitation over a short period of time during photosynthesis.
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The very concept of “fact”—a discrete, isolated, indifferent statement, free from emotional and social contexts—is a social construct of the 16th century science.

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There are molecular mechanisms for generating transmembrane proton gradients in modern cells.
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‘A machine’ is schematically designed to perform  elementary physical processes to achieve a funtional purpose.
A totality of  symbiotically coupled  elementary physical processes having some functional channels strengthened by natural selection and environmental feedbacks, is adorably called ‘a living body’.
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Energy centric origin of life (Nick Lane’s proton gradient) is more  fundamental than gene centric ( Richard Dawkins’ replicating molecules).
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Circumstantial stresses forced a spatio-temporal stream of  a proton gradient to adapt to the primitive ocean spinning the grandest  yarn. The grandest yarn is officially called ‘life’.
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To define ‘life’, it is not enough to discover how earthly life started accidentally. It requires a general rule governing the emergence of any life anywhere. Perhaps any life anywhere  emerges as an  internal proton flow  sustained by an external electron flow. Both might be independently  kickstarted by something else and then get coupled with each other.Electrons and protons are spatio temporally available .
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A sort of oceanic filtering evolved into life.

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Life is a complex electrochemical filtering. Even a trivial rock filtering seawater is associated with the meaning of life.

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Filtering>Chemical gradient>Electrical gradient>Growth>Splitting>Replication>Life.

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‘The self’ materialized on the hadean earth using no more than rocks, water and carbon dioxide. Most energy flux available in the form of electrochemical  gradient must have simply dissipated without use as enzymes that economically catalyse very specific reactions were yet to evolve.
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Any grand theory explains a lot about the world.
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The role that energy plays in all living things can explain why life is the way it is.
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To define ‘life’, it is necessary to understand the role of energetic electrons.
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Life is one of the electronic circuits known as ‘redox reactions’  in the known universe.
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All complex life shares a common ancestor, gets old and reproduces via sex. Perhaps such common traits arise from the evolutionary expansion / spontaneous distribution of the planetary energy.
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‘Life’ is just an ‘evolved disguise’ of the proton gradient in hydrothermal vents sending bitter alkaline fluid from the Earth’s crust  to acidic seawater.
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‘Life’ is an evolutionary perpetuation of geothermal proton gradient.
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To colonize early Earth’s oceans, the  primordial life-forms left deep-sea vents only when the battery of life(proton gradient ) evolved enough to be recharged by an alternative ‘alkaline fluid’  (electron-donor).
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Membrane is not a mere protecting shelter for life. Life  itself nucleated around membrane in the form of proton gradient.Proton gradient represents the earliest ‘life’. Membrane represents the earliest body.

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“Ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.” – John 8:32

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The porous hydrothermal vents — where alkaline seawater spews from cracks in the ocean crust — creates a proton dam. When this ‘battery’ like proton gradient falls  prey to spatiotemporal splitting, a new name called ‘LIFE’ is attributed to it.

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“The collective system is alive. Its parts are just chemicals.”

  • Kauffman

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Evolution is the gradual accumulation of ‘very little changes’ over a long period of time. As a result, the transformed thing looks like a totally different one without any relation to its initial form. Thus, fish became ape. Ape became man. Some past ancestor of fish obviously evolved from some simple chemical or molecular systems claiming no ‘living’ status.

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Life is, fundamentally not merely, a chemical reaction.
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For life to have emerged from CO₂, rocks, and water on the early Earth, a sustained source of chemically transducible energy was essential.
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Medical sciences have  discovered  many physical and chemical processes in our body. Our so-called ‘life’ might just be a symbiotic survival  of such ‘indifferent’ processes.

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“We do not ‘come into’ this world: we come out of it, as leaves from a tree. As the ocean ‘waves’, the universe ‘peoples’.”

— Alan Watts
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Natural  events individually happen only once. Perhaps we shouldn’t ascribe any ‘extra’ precariousness to the emergence of life.
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Natural  events individually happen only once. Such infinitely varied natural events naturally include ‘life’, a real phenomenon but an imaginary term.
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Life might require more than a ‘Goldilocks Zone’ – a planet at a convenient distance from a suitable star.
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‘Goldilocks Zone’ is the place in a stellar system where the temperature is just right – neither too hot nor too cold – for liquid water to exist on a planet.

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Life might require a large moon.
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Life might require a planet with a rocky mantle along with a moving molten core producing a magnetic field to block deadly cosmic radiation.
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Life might require a bizarre and rare  biochemical reaction.

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Natural  events individually happen only once. Emergence of life might not be more precarious than all other events in nature.
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Perhaps life happened only once on Earth since all life is the same at the molecular level.
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Perhaps earthly life has one common ancestor  since all life is the same at the molecular level.
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Drake Equation crunches the numbers of   input variables to calculate the probability of alien life. The absolute number of minimum variables is still undecided.

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Wwe

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A sort of ‘free energy’ evolved into ‘life’.

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Biological evolution was preceded by chemical evolution. The first polymeric molecules capable of storing information and reproducing themselves were randomly assembled from prebiotic molecules. The most efficient replicators evolved into informational nucleic acids – the basis for all forms of life on our planet.

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Even simple chemical reaction pathways could have given rise to DNA subunits on the early Earth.
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Life began on Earth when simple molecules in the early environment became complexified by the input of ambient energy.
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Life is the most wonderful phenomenon.

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“Nothing is too wonderful to be true, if it be consistent with the laws of nature.”
-Michael Faraday

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“The human race is just a chemical scum on a moderate-sized planet orbiting round a very average star in the outer suburb of one among a hundred billion galaxies.”
Stephen Hawking
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LIFE, not only initially but also fundamentally, might be a leaking of protons from an internal dam sustained by an external electron flow.


Proton leaking is the backbone process of life.

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Life is  too unstructured to have any  literary meaning. It is a SORT  of symbiotic survival of metabolic, genetic and memetic contingencies.
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Life is the survival of terror. The terror of death  makes life LIFE, an intensely joyful experience.
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Life is not the whole story, just a part of the grandest one.
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“Every block of stone has a statue inside it and it is the task of the sculptor to discover it. ” ― Michelangelo
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‘Life’ is a tangled tuft of almost invisible threads of physical processes. …………………………………………
‘Life’ doesn’t originate following any single prescribed recipe. It is merely an instant hotchpotch of default physical processes.
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A theory of biological evolution should explain the origin and function of life on any astronomical body from an abiotic beginning.
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The classic definition of life involves seven key characteristics: reproduction, a cellular basis, growth and development, biological evolution, regulation, response and metabolism .
Viruses are excluded as non-cellular and non-metabolic, while mules could equally be excluded as non-reproductive.
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Erwin Schrödinger defined life as that which resists decaying to disorder and to equilibrium.
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“Life is one member of the class of phenomena which are open or continuous reaction systems able to decrease their entropy at the expense of substances or energy taken in from the environment and subsequently rejected in a degraded form”.
Lovelock
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Life at some point came from non-life. This immediately challenging fact requires at least one moment of abiogenesis.
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The thermodynamic definition of life, as a subclass of systems that remain far from thermodynamic equilibrium and convert free energy to less useful energy, allows for a transition from abiotic to biotic more easily than the seven characteristics commonly used, and evades the difficulty of viruses and mules as non-organisms.
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The transition from abiotic to biotic is a gradient rather than a sharp step, moving from one sub-class to another.
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Pascal viewed that life emerged through states of partial ‘aliveness’.
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Life is merely one expression along the matter-energy continuum.
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Any discussion concerning the origin of life in a thermodynamic model need only relate to material availability, since all other considerations are outcomes of the universal laws of physics.
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Life is a thermodynamic concept.
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Biology is understandable only in the light of evolution.
The evolution of life is best understood through a thermodynamic lens.
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Thermodynamics determines structure, function and change at every level of organization of the biosphere.
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Biological diversification is the translation of ‘drive towards maximum entropy production’.
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‘Drive towards maximum entropy production’ is represented by change in protein structure and function.
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‘Drive towards maximum entropy production’ is expressed in organismal diversity.
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Biological evolution is a thermodynamic process by which maximum entropy production is restored.
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Biological diversification can be best understood as a diffusional process.
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“As biosystems grow and develop, they should increase their total dissipation, and develop more complex structures with more energy flow, increase their cycling activity, develop greater diversity and generate more hierarchical levels”.
Toussaint and Schneider
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“Self-acceleration results from the tendency towards ever-increasing dispersal of the energy within the ecosystem as expressed in ever-increasing diversity; increasing diversity causes an increase in the rate of energy flow”.
Johnson
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Diffusion of diversity is a journey towards an equilibrium state of maximum entropy.
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Diversification originates from the second law of thermodynamics.
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Life diffuses into a multidimensional volume.
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Ecospace is the multidimensional space within which biological diffusion occurs.
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Ecospace is the multidimensional space, wherein life can exist.
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Ecospace is determined by mass-energy interactions.
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A niche is just one point within ecospace.
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Ecospace is defined only by the potential limitations imposed by the laws of physics.
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An increase in energy flux, such as eutrophication, can lead to a decrease in ecospace.
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Ecospace is ultimately an emergent thermodynamic outcome.
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Biological systems diffuse towards a dynamic equilibrium state within ecospace.
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Diversification is a diffusional process.
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If there is a concentration gradient (i.e., available ecospace), material will move from high to low concentration regions.
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Thermodynamics provides an explanation for the direction and rate of evolution.
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Ecospace is proportional to bio-diversity.
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Each species represents a different location within ecospace.
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A thermodynamic explanation of evolution represents a “general abstract theory” championed by Moore and with the concept of consilience of Wilson.
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Boltzmann was the first to describe the struggle for existence in thermodynamic terms.
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“The general struggle for existence of animate beings is therefore not a struggle for raw materials —these, for organisms, are air, water and soil, all abundantly available—nor for energy which exists in plenty in any body in the form of heat (albeit unfortunately not transformable), but a struggle for entropy, which becomes available through the transition of energy from the hot sun to the cold earth.”

  • Boltzmann
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    Thermodynamics influenced biological evolution.
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    Schrödinger proposed that biological self-organization and thermodynamics would be reconciled by the study of living systems from a non-equilibrium perspective.
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    Prigogine referred to life forms as dissipative structures, and argued that early organisms evolved from non-living, far-from-equilibrium structures, increasing in complexity through increased entropy production.
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    Fenchel demonstrated that the increasing complexity of life on our planet followed an increasingly dissipative path, the specific energy needs per unit biomass being higher for multi-cellular organisms than for unicellular organisms, and for homeothermic animals in comparison to poikilothermic animals.
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    “In any real process, it is impossible to dissipate a set amount of energy in finite time without creating any structures in the process”.
    Ulanowicz
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    Given that open systems such as ecosystems will move towards maximizing dispersal of energy, we expect biological diversity to increase towards a level representing maximum entropic production.
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    Life diffuses into available energetic space (ecospace) towards a dynamic equilibrium, driven by increasing entropy within the genetic material. This dynamic equilibrium is punctured by extinction events followed by diffusion into available ecospace.
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    “Darwin’s theory forms the theoretical basis of all biology”. – Baverstock and Rönkkö
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    The history of evolutionary thinking began with the work of Lamarck who explained that evolution followed a path of increasing complexity determined by some vital force or fluid.
    It was Charles Darwin who set out the idea of evolution through natural selection.
    Gregor Mendel provided a mathematical foundation. The selfish gene advocated by George Williams, William Hamilton and Richard Dawkins represents neo-Darwinism.
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    Just as Darwin had focused on heterogeneity between individual organisms as a basis for a mechanistic model of evolution, Boltzmann developed a mechanistic model of macroscopic phenomena focused upon molecular heterogeneity.
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    Open systems interacting with the external environment in non-linear ways are stabilized in such a way as to maximize entropy production. Open systems existing in a state far from equilibrium become stabilized when entropy production is maximized and this is facilitated by the emergence of dissipative structures. Importantly, dissipative structures with access to free energy will reduce internal entropy and thus become more ordered by externalizing entropic output to the environment. Thus complexity and dissipation are, in effect, two sides of the one coin.
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    “The main principles of Darwinism are applicable to all evolving systems, from elementary particles to galaxies”. -Prigogine
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    “The principle of life will hereafter be shown to be part, or a consequence, of some general law.”

-Darwin
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The principle of life is a part, or a consequence, of a general law called ‘thermodynamics’.
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Life is a braid in spacetime. One day we might discover the grand mathematics that can reveal how we look as a spacetime structure. …………………………………………

Life is a braid in spacetime. George Gamow entitled his autobiography’ My World Line’, a phrase to refer to paths through spacetime. …………………………………………
Unstable K meson has about 70 ways in which it can disintegrate into a set of lighter particles. Interactive braidings of such physical processes build amazing things like us. Such elementary processes are actually classical duality for quantum indeterminacy.
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Life is a blurred stream between classical and quantum rivers.
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LIFE, in general, might be a leaking of protons from an internal dam sustained by an external electron flow. Earthly life might be an updated version of the proton gradient in hydrothermal vents squirting bitter electron-rich alkaline fluid from the Earth’s crust  to proton-rich acidic seawater.
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Life is one of the means of  thermodynamic process. Living bodies  are the very courses of blind physical processes.
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Even as life maintains its internal order, its loss of heat to the environment allows the universe to experience an overall increase in entropy (or disorder) in accordance with the second law.
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A gene ,a small group of atoms, irreversibly resists decay by dissipating the energy while they transform.

 
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Dissipation doesn’t ensure irreversibility, but irreversibility requires dissipation.

 
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Irreversibility is  a hallmark of life.

 
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To have  irreversibility ,  a hallmark of life, a system must  absorb and dissipate heat.
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Some arrangements of atoms are  better at absorbing and spending heat than others. These arrangements are more likely to undergo an irreversible transformation.
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Looking backward at the  history of a product of a non-equilibrium process, the structure will appear to us like it has adapted to its environment.

 
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A system of atoms doesn’t try to do anything—it  just blindly, randomly, shuffles itself around. And yet, through its chemical journey from one shape to another, it self-organizes into something that looks to us like it has adapted.

 
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“Language is a labyrinth of paths.” – Wittgenstein.

 
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‘Life’ is ‘dissipative adaptation.’
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Thermodynamically, we are cooling towers for the sun.
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Darwinian natural selection is a special case  of dissipative adaptation, a dialect of a more fundamental language.

 
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‘Life’ is ‘dissipative adaptation.’
Adaptation occurs on the micro-scale, dissipation ( natural selection) occurs in the world of macroscopic self-replicators.

 
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Self-replication is a  way to consume and dissipate energy.

 
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In the language of dissipative adaptation, fitness is not optimal functionality but exceptional irreversibility.
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Life is an inevitable consequence of physics.

 
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“The origin and subsequent evolution of life follow from the fundamental laws of nature and should be as unsurprising as rocks rolling downhill.”
Jeremy England – professor of biophysics at MIT
 

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The most fundamental difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms is that the former is  much more efficient at dissipating energy as heat.
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When a group of atoms is surrounded by a heat bath (like the ocean or atmosphere), it will often gradually restructure itself in order to dissipate increasingly more energy. Thus matter acquires  the key physical attribute associated with life.
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The thermodynamical law of increasing entropy  bridges physics and biology.

 
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Hot things cool down, gas diffuses through air, eggs scramble but never spontaneously unscramble; in short, energy tends to disperse or spread out with / begetting time.

 
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Drops of different colours in  water initially remain as separate dots far apart, but over time, the colors spread out, mix, and in the end, there’s just one single color. That’s the universe; the dots, in this case, can be pockets of biological life.
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Biology arises because, in certain environments – like on planets – where the energy balance is so out of whack, physics guarantees that atoms rearrange themselves to be able to deal with the chaotic flow of energy. These atomic structures just happen to resemble what we refer to as “life”.
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“You start with a random clump of atoms, and if you shine light on it for long enough, it should not be so surprising that you get a plant.”
Jeremy England
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Trees don’t ungrow because life can’t transcend the laws of thermodynamics.
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From the perspective of a physicist, life isn’t different from non-life in any fundamental sense. Rocks and people, cities and jungles, are all just collections of matter that move and change shape over time while exchanging energy with their surroundings.

 
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No equation will ever  leap off the page to make something live and breathe.

 
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Many  separate behaviours distinguish living things. Each of these behaviours is  too limited not to conceive of a non-living thing that accomplishes the same task.
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Fire is  a primitive self-replicator that ‘copies’ itself by spreading.

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In Jeremy England’s  “dissipative adaptation,” complex, life-like function can self-organize and emerge from simpler inanimate matter.
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Jeremy England is  called the next Charles Darwin.
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Life’s  functions are accomplished by molecules.
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Molecules are inanimate, and their only ‘function’ is to spin and vibrate. Natural selection sewed such ‘blind functions’ into ‘life’. The word “function” trapezes between life and not-life.
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Wittgenstein argued that a word’s function  depends on its context, a context determined by the agents  who are using it. Amino acids, or even atoms , can write a sonnet, only in the context  of a macromolecule(man).
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Consciousness is an extension of purposiveness. ‘Purpose’ is the translation of  “informational feedbacks from the past” . Even a “feedback” is the translation of “accumulated new reactions out of structural deformation”.
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Physics is devoid of functions. Spacetime ,quantum fields or quantum uncertainty don’t exist for any express reason, but just are.

 
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In biology, systems are fine-tuned to act.  To move, catalyze, and construct.
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“Biology” is the translation of “ accumulation of mutually inclusive functional parts”.
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The pieces, individually obeying nothing more than the basic laws of physics, collectively accrue function.
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Function is absent from the world of physics.
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Physics doesn’t make a distinction between life and not-life. But biology does.
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Both a tree and a solar panel absorb and transform solar energy, and dump heat into their environment.
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Life doesn’t defy the laws of nature.
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Species=> Genes => Energy => Disequilibrium (life’s “main fuel”)
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Energy doesn’t drive processes—or become “consumed” or “used” in their occurrence. Disequilibria make living or nonliving things happen.While energy is typically a dominant contributor to the “medium”, the “message” is disequilibri-um dissipation and creation.

 
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An autocatalytic  catalyst is one of the products of the reaction.
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The museum of reality displays an  existential scaffolding.
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“Intelligent information- processing must come into existence in the Universe, and, once it comes into existence, it will never die out.” -Barrow and Tipler
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“Reproduction is not something that belongs to living organisms by some miraculous linkage, but is simply a specialized means of adaptation of a specialized class of disturbances”.
-Ashby
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‘Life’ is the old-fashioned name for ‘adaptability’.Reproduction proved to be far more evolutionarily economical than immortality to maintain ADAPTABILITY.
Absolutely stable or permanent version of ‘life’ might look like supersymmetric quantum field. Evolution didn’t invent it. It  has already been everywhere eternally. Physical laws,universe, energy, matter,gravity, stars,planets, evolution, life,man, etc. are  mere facets of that ‘unchristened mathematical field’.
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