Last Updated on

Inspire kids to become scientists by saying that…..…………………………………………

Some recent researches on black holes, in an attempt to unify relativity and quantum mechanics, treat the universe like a hologram.

……………………………………..

According to some recent researches on black holes, all the information inside a region of the universe should be encoded on a ( sort of )

holographic screen of one-lesser dimension. This is the holographic principle.

……………………………………..

Since holographic screens depend on the choice

of an observer, the observer in an expanding universe might be a natural part of the cosmic system.

……………………………………..

The observer-dependence of holographic screens implies that the fundamental description of the universe depends on the choice of the observer.

……………………………………..

“Whoever…proves his point

and demonstrates the prime truth

geometrically

should be believed by all the world,

for there we are captured.”

~Albrecht Durer

……………………………………..

If you’re interested in how Einstein attempted to explain existence, you should know about “curved” or “flat” spacetime.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

If you’re interested in how Einstein explored existence, you should wonder about how spacetime can be “curved” or “flat”.

……………………………………..

……………………………………..

If want to look at reality/existence in Einstein’s style , you should wonder about how spacetime can be “curved” or “flat”.

……………………………………..

The interface between differential geometry and physics holds the mystery of ‘curved spacetime’.

……………………………………..

Minkowski was a German mathematician who suggested the concept of four-dimensional space-time.

……………………….

According to Minkowski, the universe is made up of three spatial dimensions and one time dimension.

……………………………………..

According to Minkowski, temporal distance is not like its spatial counterparts.

……………………………………..

In Minkowski’s universe, distances along space and time are measured with different geometric equations.

……………………………………..

In Minkowski’s universe, the square

of a spacelike distance is positive, but the square of a distance in the time direction is negative. This weird feature distinguishes time from space.

……………………………………

Temporal directions wobble near a black hole.

……………………………………..

Past the event horizon of a black hole, one is pulled towards the black hole, but not forward in time.

……………………………………..

Thermodynamically defined time might not run forward near black holes.

……………………………………..

Some physicists describe the geometry of black holes as curved “holographic screens.

……………………………………..

A black hole’s event horizon is the point-of-no-return that separates a black hole from its observers.

……………………………………..

In holographic principle, information is preserved as part of surface fluctuations of the event horizon itself.

……………………………………..

Flat holographic pictures create 3D illusions. In holographic principle, a three-dimensional black holes is transcribed on a two-dimensional surface.

……………………………………..

Polchinski rejected the dualistic complementarity by saying that in-falling observers would get burnt up by a literal firewall at the event horizon.

…………………………………………

The firewall paradox is a conflict between three fundamental postulates- equivalence principle, unitarity and locality. To resolve the paradox, one of them must be abandoned.

…………………………………………

Since there’s no difference between acceleration due to gravity and the acceleration of a rocket, we shouldn’t feel anything amiss when we cross a black hole horizon. This is the equivalence principle in Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

…………………………………………

Unitarity demands that information cannot be destroyed.

…………………………………………

Locality means that events happening at a particular point in space can only influence nearby points.

…………………………………………

Locality implies that the laws of physics hold far away from a black hole, even if they break down at the singularity or at the event horizon.

…………………………………………

One solution to resolve firewall paradox is to have the equivalence principle break down at the event horizon, thereby giving rise to a firewall.

…………………………………………

Samir Mathur’s “fuzzball conjecture” resolves the paradox by declaring that there is no event horizon (hence no information loss) but a ball of strings emitting heat in the form of Hawking radiation.

…………………………………………

Hawking himself believed that information temporarily confined behind event horizon, eventually escapes in an unusable form.

…………………………………………

According to Leonard Susskind and Juan Maldacena, quantum entanglements create invisible microscopic wormholes connecting the particles still inside the hole to particles that escaped long ago. Both Hawking radiation and information loss are in line with such entangled/wormholed links.

…………………………………………

General relativity explains massive objects (stars and planets ). Quantum mechanics explains subatomic particles. A black hole (a huge mass compressed into a small space) might unify quantum mechanics and relativity.

…………………………………………

‘Matter’ is anything that occupies space and has mass.

…………………………………………

The universe is made of a “stuff” called ‘matter’.

…………………………………………

All matter is made up of substances called elements(atoms).

…………………………………………

Elements(atoms) have specific chemical and physical properties and cannot be broken down into other atoms through chemical reactions. One element(atom ) turns into another only through nuclear fission or fusion.

…………………………………………

Atoms come together to form molecules. Both atoms and molecules are held together by a form of potential energy known as ‘chemical energy’.

…………………………………………

Four natural states/phases of matter:

solids, liquids, gases and plasma. The fifth state is the man-made Bose-Einstein condensates.

…………………………………………

The electrons of each atom are constantly in motion, so the atoms have a small vibration, but they are fixed in their position in a solid having tightly packed particles with very low kinetic energy.

…………………………………………

In a liquid, the particles are so loosely packed that they flow around each other, giving the liquid an indefinite shape.

…………………………………………

In a gas, the particles stay far away from each other and expand due to high kinetic energy.

…………………………………………

Plasma of highly charged particles with extremely high kinetic energy is the most common state of matter(star) in the universe.

…………………………………………

In Bose-Einstein condensate with almost absolute zero temperature, molecular motion drops so much that thousands of separate atoms begin to clump together to take on just one “super atom.”

…………………………………………

Adding or removing energy from matter causes a physical change as matter moves from one state(water) to another(gas/ice).

…………………………………………

When heat is removed from a liquid, its particles slow down and begin to settle in one location within the substance. Thus, the liquid becomes a solid.

…………………………………………

Matter has melting , freezing or triple point.

…………………………………………

Water, in triple point, exists in all three states at a temperature of 273.16 Kelvin and a pressure of 611.2 pascals.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

All matter is composed of one dimensional vibrating strings, smaller than any known or theorised particle.

…………………………………………

A correspondence or holographic duality exists between our perceived four dimensions and one-dimensional strings in an additional dimension.

…………………………………………

In “holographic duality”, a 2D holographic surface contains the information of a 3D image or object.

…………………………………………

Imaginative Homosapience can’t help wondering how our Universe operates on a fundamental level. The holographic principle might be humanity’s password to the world of quantum gravity.

…………………………………………

Holographic duality shows how the surface of a sphere — possessing two-dimensions — can be used to model a black hole in three dimensions.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Holographically popped up 3D view shows why 2D black holes violate

Hawking’s calculation.

…………………………………………

Hawking radiational changes of black hole information can be traced by measuring the surface area of related 3D hologram. The smallest surface-area represents information content.

…………………………………………

As the surface of 3D hologram grows, a second one eventually replaces it as the smallest. Continuing to track the first surface reproduces Hawking’s error, but switching to the second one corrects the math by showing that the information contained in the black hole starts to drop.

…………………………………………

The hologram within a hologram shows what happens to a 2D black hole’s information. The same concept might somehow apply to higher-dimensional black holes like those in our universe.

…………………………………………

Black holes are regions of extreme gravity, where space-time curves steeply toward a central point known as the singularity. Quantum uncertainty causes black holes to evaporate away by constantly radiating a small amount of heat. If information is thus lost, it violates “unitarity” — a central principle of quantum mechanics that says the present always preserves information about the past.

…………………………………………

According to Hawking and Thorne, black holes kill information.

…………………………………………

According to Preskill, information escapes black holes, but we need a full-fledged theory of quantum gravity to describe how.

…………………………………………

According to complementarity proposal, information that crosses the event horizon of a black hole both reflects back out and passes inside, never to escape. Because no single observer can ever witness both inside and outside simultaneously, no contradiction arises.

…………………………………………

A simplified gravitational black hole in two dimensions is a hologram projected from a one-dimensional boundary made of a network of quantum particles.

…………………………………………

Reality is nothing but the biting of uncertainty in a blind mechanical way. The leftover global certainty exists as universe, life and consciousness.

…………………………………………

Entropy is the global uncertainty. Existence is the global certainty.

…………………………………………

Existence includes universe, life and consciousness.

…………………………………………

A gravity-free two-dimensional holographic black hole again makes a second hologram where the black hole’s matter acts like the flat boundary part that projects these 2D quantum particles pop into a 3D gravitational black hole.

…………………………………………

2D gravity is the hologram of 1D quantum particles. Though information is trapped in 2D, the popped interior with another 3D hologram stay geometrically linked to two past flat boundaries. Such a geometric link represents an escape route for subtly hidden information.

…………………………………………

A holographic connection might exist between the black hole’s interior and exterior. Since the higher-dimensional bridge might let the encoded information out in Hawking radiation, it can resolve the black hole information paradox.

…………………………………………

Physicists still wonder whether black holes store data like hard drives (obeying quantum mechanics) or just delete information through Hawking radiation( photon’s escape by quantum probability). Most physicists back the quantum mechanics and suspect that information somehow escapes in radiation.

…………………………………………

Quantum information is indestructible since the “wave function” that describes any system—be it a dictionary or the entire universe—evolves in a predictable way.

…………………………………………

According to quantum mechanics, information about the past is never lost since the “wave function” that describes any system—be it a dictionary or the entire universe—evolves in a predictable way.

…………………………………………

Holography is a dimension-hopping technique.

…………………………………..

A holographic three-dimensional image pops out from a flat(two-dimensional) sticker.

…………………………………………

Juan Maldacena’s holographical duality allows two equivalent descriptions for a black hole.

…………………………………………

A black hole is generally viewed as a gravitationally collapsed volume of space-time fabric that bends so steeply inward, that even a photon’s entire history gets imprisoned in gravitational well.

Alternatively, the black hole might be a holographic projection from the two-dimensional network of quantum particles on a gravity-free boundary.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

Juan Maldacena’s holographical duality within a theoretical ‘bottle universe’ allows physicists to track the flow of information through a black hole.

…………………………………………

“Time and space are modes by which we think and not conditions in which we live.”

- Albert Einstein

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

We still don’t know about ‘the underlying ultimate level’ everyday events emerge from. It might be subatomic, planckian, extra dimensional or even holographic.

…………………………………………

Quantum burst of Nothingness into functional and elemental potentialities might initiate the surface of ‘Juan Maldacena’s theoretical bottle’.

…………………………………………

Gravitational ripples of space-time inside ‘Juan Maldacena’s theoretical bottle’ holographically project from quantum particles living on the bottle’s rigid, gravity-free surface.

…………………………………………

Perhaps lower dimensional fields on the surface of the manifold get grouped into causal structures creating extra dimensions.

…………………………………………

A particular surface area of a manifold represents the absolute value of a particular wave function.

…………………………………………

A position on the surface of the manifold is an elementary-position.

…………………………………………

A particle existing at the elementary-position is regarded as a state-element.

…………………………………………

The state of the state-element at the elementary-position is an elementary-state.

…………………………………………

A transition from one elementary-state to the other elementary-state is an elementary-event.

…………………………………………

A probability is proportional to the number of elementary-events.

…………………………………………

The number of elementary-events is the square of the number of elementary-states.

…………………………………………

The number of elementary-states is proportional to the surface area of the manifold.

…………………………………………

The surface area of a manifold is an absolute value of a wave function. Therefore, the probability is proportional to a square of an absolute value of a wave function following Pythagorean theorem in Hilbert space having Euclidean properties.

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………

…………………………………………